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الموضوع: تقرير عن Transportation

  1. #1
    عضو جديد
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    Sep 2011
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    Taqrer2 تقرير عن Transportation

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    يبت تقرير عن Transportation

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    Transportation

    Introduction:

    In a physiological sense transport generally means the movement of substances across the membranes of cells.
    But at this report you are going to read about one of the technological advancements and scientific achievement that so greatly influence our lifestyle and impact our lives.



    Presentation:

    Definition of transport

    Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another. Transport is performed by various modes, such as air, rail, road and water. It can be bowered by human, animal put now days it can be powered mechanically. Transport can be owned "Private" or for the verity of people "public".

    History of transport:

    The first form of transport was, of course, Shank’s pony (the human foot!). However people eventually learned to use animals for transport. Donkeys and horses were probably domesticated between 4,000 and 3,000 BC (obviously the exact date is not known). Camels were domesticated slightly later between 3,000 and 2,000 BC.

    Meanwhile about 3,500 BC the wheel was invented in what is now Iraq. At first wheels were made of solid pieces of wood lashed together to form a circle but after 2,000 BC they were made with spokes.
    The earliest boats were dug out canoes. People lit a fire on a big log then put it out and dug out the burned wood.

    About 3,100 BC the Egyptians invented the sailing boat. They were made of bundles of papyrus reeds tied together. They had simple square sails made of sheets of papyrus or later of linen. However the sail could only be used when sailing in one direction. When traveling against the wind the boat had to be rowed. About 2,700 BC the Egyptians began using wooden ships for trade by sea.

    Goods were sometimes transported by pack horse (horses with bags on their sides). Also carriers with covered wagons carried goods and sometimes passengers. However when possible people preferred to transport goods by water. All around England there was a 'coastal trade'. Goods from one part of the country, such as coal, were taken by sea to other parts.

    The thought of flying has been every mankind’s ultimate dream even before airplanes were invented. Before the invention and development, men and women tried to navigate the air by imitating the birds and its wings. They built machines with flapping wings and for some time, the idea worked. However, the flapping wings only worked for a bird-scale than it does at much larger scale to lift man and machine off the ground.

    In 1783, few aeronauts discovered the art of uncontrolled flying with air balloons, which harder than expected, it was difficult to navigate and go to one place to the other unless the wind was blowing the desired direction. Until the turn of the 19th century, an English baronet from Yorkshire invented a flying machine with fixed wings, a repulsion system and movable control surface which eventually became the fundamental concept of the airplane. Sir George Cayley built the first true airplane which evolved through time and became the amazing machines that have taken mankind to the edge of space at speed of light.

    In 1899, the Wright Brother’s designed their first aircraft, a small biplane glider flown as a kite to test their solution for controlling the aircraft by wing warping; a method of arching the wingtips slightly to control the aircraft’s rolling motion and balance. Over the next three years, Wilbur and Orville Wright would design a series of gliders which would be flown in XXXX unmanned and piloted flights. They went over the earlier works of Cayley, Langley and Otto Lilienthal and soon recognized that the control and navigation would be the most crucial and hardest problem to solve, But at the end they made it.

    Forms of transport:

    Transport is divided into three forms which are:
    1) Land Travel 2) water travel 3) Flight travel.
    And I'll discuss each of them at the coming paragraphs.


    Land travel:

    A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places. Roads are typically smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel; though they need not be, and historically many roads were simply recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance. In urban areas roads may pass through a city or village and be named as streets, serving a dual function as urban space easement and route.

    The most common road vehicle is the automobile; a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. Other users of roads include buses, trucks, motorcycles, bicycles and pedestrians. As of 2002 there were 590 million automobiles worldwide.

    The first forms of road transport were horses, oxen or even humans carrying goods over dirt tracks that often followed game trails. The Roman Empire was in need for armies to be able to travel quickly; they built deep roadbeds of crushed stone as an underlying layer to ensure that they kept dry, as the water would flow out from the crushed stone, instead of becoming mud in clay soils. John Loudon Macadam designed the first modern highways of inexpensive paving material of soil and stone aggregate known as macadam during the Industrial Revolution. Coating of cobblestones and wooden paving were popular during the 19th century while tarmac and concrete paving became popular during the 20th.

    Automobiles offer high flexibility and with low capacity, but are deemed with high energy and area use, and the main source of noise and air pollution in cities; buses allow for more efficient travel at the cost of reduced flexibility. Road transport by truck is often the initial and final stage of freight transport.
    Water travel:

    Ship transport is the process of transport by barge, boat, ship or sailboat over a sea, ocean, lake, canal or river. A watercraft is a vehicle designed to float on and move across (or under) water. The need for buoyancy unites watercraft, and makes the hull a dominant aspect of its construction, maintenance and appearance.

    The first craft were probably types of canoes cut out from tree trunks. The colonization of Australia by Indigenous Australians provides indirect but conclusive evidence for the latest date for the invention of ocean-going craft. Early sea transport was accomplished with ships that were either rowed or used the wind for propulsion, or a combination of the two.

    In the 1800s the first steam ships were developed, using a steam engine to drive a paddle wheel or propeller to move the ship. The steam was produced using wood or coal. Now most ships have an engine using a slightly refined type of petroleum called bunker fuel. Some specialized ships, such as submarines, use XXXXXXX power to produce the steam. Recreational or educational craft still use wind power, while some smaller craft use internal combustion engines to drive one or more propellers, or in the case of jet boats, an inboard water jet. In shallow draft areas hovercraft are propelled by large pusher-prop fans.
    Although slow, modern sea transport is a highly effective method of transporting large quantities of non-perishable goods. Transport by water is significantly less costly than air transport for trans-continental shipping; short sea shipping and ferries remain viable in coastal areas.


    Air travel:

    Air travel is a form of travel using an airplanes, or a rarely a balloon. People choose this from of travel to travel from country to country, continent to continent, some times for medical emergencies; because this form is the fastest mode of traveling,
    You can fly at a private jet, or at your country's airlines.



    The influence of transport on our lives:

    Transport is a key necessity for specialization, allowing production and consumption of product to occur at different ways. Transport has throughout history been the gate to expansion; better transport allows more trade and spread of people. Economic growth has always been dependent on increased capacity and more rational transport. But the infrastructure and operation of transport incurs large impact on the land and is the largest drainer of energy, making transport sustainability a major issue.


    Modern society dictates a physical distinction between home and work, forcing people to transport themselves to place of work or study, supplemented by the need to temporarily relocate for other daily activities. Passenger transport is also the essence tourism, a mayor part of recreational transport. Commerce needs transport of people to conduct business, either to allow face-to-face communication for important decisions, or to transport specialists from their regular place of work to sites where they are needed. And transport is a major use of energy, burning most of the world's petroleum; creating air pollution, including nitrous oxides and particulates and being a significant contributor to global warming through emission of carbon dioxide, the fastest growing emission sector. Environmental regulations in developed countries have reduced the individual vehicles emission; this has been offset by an increase in the number of vehicles and more use of each vehicle. Energy use and emissions vary largely between modes, causing environmentalists to call for a transition from air and road to rail and human-powered transport and go to transport electrification and energy efficiency.

    By subsector, road transport is the largest contributor to global warming. (74%) Other environmental impacts of transport systems include traffic congestion and automobile-oriented urban sprawl, which can consume natural habitat and agricultural lands. By reducing transportation emissions globally, it is predicted that there will be significant positive effects on earth's air quality, acid rain, smog, and climate change.


    Conclusion:

    As I said earlier my report discussed the possible ideas about transport, which had two sides a good side and a bad side
    Effecting on us and on our environment.
    I hope that my report helped you realizing and understanding more about transport.

    Recommendations:

    - I recommend people to reduce using private forms of transport as possible as they can.
    - I recommend all the people of my country to try creating a new ways of travel on each form.
    - I recommend you to share the school library with a copy of my report.


    Resources:

    Web:
    - Transport - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    - A History of Transport



    Books:

    - Transporting by: Arthur Johns.

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  2. #2
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  3. #3
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