المساعد الشخصي الرقمي

مشاهدة النسخة كاملة : اى بحث فى الانجليزى انا حاضر



moosa1
08-11-2007, 08:09 PM
:clap: :bye1: اى بحث فى الانجليزى انا حاضر:clap:

fizola
09-11-2007, 01:09 PM
بحث عن الفصول الاربعة

fizola
09-11-2007, 01:09 PM
لو تقدر اليوم

al.7ellowa
09-11-2007, 01:20 PM
جزاك الله خير ع المبادرة الطيبة منج
بالتوفيق

مس_نووتي
09-11-2007, 01:40 PM
السلام عليكم

جزاك الله خيرا

و بغيت بحث عن Thomas Edison

و لو تقدر اليوم و مشكور

روضة العين
09-11-2007, 02:56 PM
ابي بحث عن بر الوالدين لو تقدرون اليوم ضروري

moosa1
09-11-2007, 03:26 PM
البحـــــوث تحت

moosa1
09-11-2007, 03:30 PM
The Four Seasons (group)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Ten things you may not know about images on Wikipedia •Jump to: navigation, search
The Four Seasons
Also known as The Wonder Who?, The Valley Boys, Frankie Valli ("solo") and various others
Origin Newark, New Jersey
Genre(s) Rock
Pop
Brown-eyed soul
Years active 1961–
Label(s) Vee Jay Records, Philips Records, Motown, Warner Bros. Records, MCA, Curb
Members
Frankie Valli
Bob Gaudio (no longer touring with group)
Group membership fluctuates
Former members
Charles Calello
Don Ciccone
Jerry Corbetta
Tommy DeVito
Joe Long
Nick Massi
Gerry Polci
The Four Seasons, (known off and on since 1967 as Frankie Valli & The Four Seasons), are an American pop and rock group, distinct from many similar groups of the early to mid-1960s in its traditional Italian-American sound. It also had a sound somewhat reminiscent of doo wop, but it was not known as a doo wop quartet. By the mid 1960s it became an internationally famous rock and roll group.

In 1961, the group known as The Four Lovers evolved into The Four Seasons, with Frankie Valli as the lead singer, Bob Gaudio (formerly of The Royal Teens) on keyboards and tenor vocals, Tommy DeVito on lead guitar and baritone vocals and Nick Massi on bass guitar and bass vocals (Massi was replaced in 1965 by Charles Calello, who was in turn replaced in 1965 by Joe Long on bass guitar and bass vocals).

The official name of the organization is the Four Seasons Partnership, formed by Gaudio and Valli after a failed audition in 1961. While singers, producers, and musicians have come and gone, Gaudio and Valli remain the group's constant (with each owning fifty percent of the act and its assets, including virtually all of its recording catalog).[1][2]

The Four Seasons (group members 1961–1965) were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1990 and the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 1999.

$$$$$$$s [hide]
1 History
1.1 Before the Four Seasons
1.2 The rise of the Four Seasons
1.3 From Vee Jay to Philips
1.4 One group, several acts
1.5 The end of the '60s and a change to Motown
1.6 Renaissance
1.7 After disco
2 Also known as...
2.1 Pre 1961
2.2 1961 and after
3 U.S. Discography
3.1 US Albums
3.2 Selected US singles
4 Jersey Boys
5 Notes
6 External links



[edit] History

[edit] Before the Four Seasons
Frankie Valli's first commercial release was "My Mother's Eyes" (as Frank Valley) in 1953. The following year, he joined the Variety Trio and formed the group that evolved into the Variatones (with brothers Tommy and Nick DeVito and Hank Majewski),[3] which between 1954 and 1956, performed and recorded under a variety of names before settling on the name The Four Lovers.[4][5] The same year, the quartet released their first record, "You're the Apple of My Eye", which appeared on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart, peaking at #62.[6] Five additional Four Lovers singles (on RCA Victor Records) were released over the next year, with virtually no sales, airplay, or jukebox play. In 1957, the group's seventh single (this time on Epic) had a similar lack of success.[7]

From 1956 until 1960, the group stayed together, performing in clubs and lounges as The Four Lovers and recording on various record labels with various names: Frankie Tyler, Frankie Valley, Frankie Valley and the Travelers, Frankie Valle and the Romans, The Village Voices, and The Topics are some of the 18 "stage names" used individually or collectively by the members of the group.

In 1958, the group started working with producer Bob Crewe, primarily with session work (Crewe wrote "I Go Ape", which Valli recorded with the intention of releasing it as a "solo" single). Later that year, the Four Lovers were performing in Baltimore on the same stage as The Royal Teens, who was riding the wave of success of "Short Shorts", a song that was co-written by then-15-year-old Bob Gaudio, who was also the Royal Teens' guitarist.

The next year, Gaudio replaced Nick DeVito in the lineup, with Gaudio doubling as $$$$ keyboardist and guitar, and Charles Calello replaced Majewski on bass (Callelo would soon return as the group's arranger). In 1960, Calello left and was replaced by Nick Massi.

Despite the change of personnel, the fortunes of The Four Lovers did not change in the beginning of 1961, when they failed an audition for a lounge at a Union Township, Union County, New Jersey, bowling establishment. According to Gaudio, "We figured we'll come out of this with something. So we took the name of the bowling alley. It was called the Four Seasons." Despite the last few years of frustration of the Four Lovers, this proved to be the turning point of the group: on a handshake between guitarist/keyboardist/composer (and future producer) Bob Gaudio and lead singer Frankie Valli, the Four Seasons Partnership was formed.


[edit] The rise of the Four Seasons
The Four Seasons released their first single in 1961 ("Bermuda"/"Spanish Lace" on Gone Records). While the single did not chart, the songs gave the group enough of a following to be signed with Vee Jay Records late that year.

In 1962, the group released their first album featuring the single "Sherry", which was not only their first charted hit but also their first number one song. Under the guidance of producer/songwriter Bob Crewe, The Four Seasons followed up "Sherry" with several million-selling hits, including "Big Girls Don't Cry" (their second #1 hit), "Walk Like a Man" (their third #1), "Candy Girl", "Ain't That a Shame", and several others. In addition, they released a Christmas album in December of 1962 and charted with a unique rendition of "Santa Claus Is Coming to Town".

From 1962 to early 1964, only the Beach Boys matched the Four Seasons in record sales in the United States, and their first three Vee Jay non-holiday single releases marked the first time that a vocal group hit #1 on the Billboard singles charts with three consecutive entries (ignoring their version of "Santa Claus Is Coming to Town").


[edit] From Vee Jay to Philips
Despite the group's success, Vee Jay Records was under financial distress. The label eventually filed for bankruptcy, and a royalty dispute between Vee Jay and The Four Seasons headed to the courtrooms. At the end of 1963, after several successful albums and lack of money from them, The Four Seasons left Vee Jay Records and moved over to Philips Records, a division of Mercury Records (in the settlement of the lawsuit (in 1965), Vee Jay retained release rights for all material the group recorded for the label - and exercised them liberally over the following three years - and the group was obligated to deliver one final album to Vee Jay, which they did in the form of a live LP in 1966).

The change of label did not diminish the popularity of the Four Seasons in 1964, nor did the onslaught of the British Invasion and Beatlemania. However, "Dawn (Go Away)" (recorded for Atlantic Records, which rejected it) was kept from the #1 spot on the Hot 100 by no fewer than three Beatles singles in the March 21, 1964, edition (two weeks later, the top 5 slots were filled by Beatles singles).

In mid-July of that year, the Four Seasons made their fourth trip to the top of the singles charts with "Rag Doll"; additional massive-selling singles from 1964 on their new label included "Ronnie", "Big Man in Town", "Save It For Me", "Bye, Bye, Baby (Baby Goodbye)" (originally "Bye Bye Baby"), and "Girl Come Running". In the meantime, Vee Jay continued releasing Four Seasons singles from their vault, including "Stay" and "Alone." The ultimate in Vee Jay recycling occurred on October 1, 1964, when the label produced a double album consisting of reissues of old Four Seasons recordings and the Vee Jay Introducing... The Beatles album (from 1963) and dubbed it The Beatles vs. the Four Seasons ("The International Battle of the Century!").


[edit] One group, several acts
Nick Massi left The Four Seasons in 1965 and was replaced by Charles Calello, the group's arranger (and former member of the Four Lovers). A few months later, Calello was replaced by Joe Long, who became the mainstay on bass and backup vocals until 1975. In the meantime, The Four Seasons released recordings under a variety of names, including The Valley Boys, The Wonder Who?, and Frankie Valli (every Valli "solo" recording from 1965 to "My Eyes Adored You" in 1975 had the same personnel and production team as the Four Seasons disks that were recorded at the same time: his first post-1961 single without the Four Seasons was 1975's "Swearin' to God").

More Top 20 singles credited to the Four Seasons followed in 1965, 1966, and 1967, including "Let's Hang On!", "Don't Think Twice" (as the Wonder Who?), "Working My Way Back to You", "Opus 17 (Don't You Worry 'Bout Me)", "I've Got You Under My Skin", "Can't Take My Eyes Off You" (released under Valli's name as a "solo" single), "Beggin'", "Tell It to the Rain", "C'mon Marianne" (their last Top Ten hit of the 1960s), and "I Make a Fool of Myself" (Frankie Valli "solo"). By late 1967, like that of their West Coast brethren, The Beach Boys, the Four Seasons' record sales were tapering off. "Will You Love Me Tomorrow" provided a "last hurrah" to the group in early 1968 (reaching #24 on the Hot 100), just before Valli's last "solo" hit of the 1960s, the #29 "To Give (The Reason I Live)".


[edit] The end of the '60s and a change to Motown
By 1969 the group's popularity was deteriorating as public interest moved away from street corner pop and towards rock with a harder edge, deeper soul music, and music with more socially conscious lyrics. The group's last single on Philips, "Patch of Blue," featured the group's name as "Frankie Valli & the Four Seasons," but the change in billing did not change the act's lack of success in 1970.

After leaving Philips, the newly rechristened act signed onto Motown Records with disastrous results. The first LP, Chameleon, failed to sell after it was released by Motown subsidiary label MoWest Records in 1971. A Frankie Valli "solo" single from 1971 ("Love Isn't Here" on Motown) and three Four Seasons singles ("Walk On, Don't Look Back" on MoWest in 1972, "How Come" and "Hickory" on Motown in 1973) - sank without a trace. A recording that was destined to reach the upper parts of the UK singles chart, "The Night", was not commercially released as a single by Motown in the United States after promotional copies (showing the artist as Frankie Valli) were distributed in 1971.

In late 1973 and early 1974, The Four Seasons recorded eight songs for a planned second Motown album, which the company refused to release to the public. Later in 1974, the record label and The Four Seasons parted ways. On behalf of the Four Seasons Partnership, Valli initially tried to purchase the entire collection of master recordings the group made for Motown; upon hearing the amount needed to buy them all, he arranged to purchase one recording for $4000 (US): "My Eyes Adored You".

Valli took the tape to Private Stock Records owner and founder Larry Uttal, who, after repeated listenings of the Four Seasons recording, wanted to release it as a Frankie Valli "solo" single. While the group remained unsigned in the latter part of 1974, Valli had a new label — and a new solo career.


[edit] Renaissance
While the hits for the Four Seasons had dried up in the first half of the 1970s, the group never lost its popularity as a performing act. Longtime member Joe Long stayed in the group until 1975. The new lineup boasted two new lead singers in Don Ciccone (formerly of The Critters) and Gerry Polci, who eased the singing load on an ailing Frankie Valli (who was gradually losing his hearing due to otosclerosis. Eventually, surgery restored most of his hearing).

As "My Eyes Adored You" climbed the Hot 100 singles chart in early 1975, Valli and Gaudio managed to get The Four Seasons signed with Warner Bros. Records as the disco era dawned. At the same time, Uttal was persuaded to release The Four Seasons Story, a two record compilation of the group's biggest hit singles from 1962 to 1970. It quickly became a gold record, selling over one million copies before the RIAA started awarding platinum records for million-selling albums.

In 1975, record sales exploded for $$$$ Valli and the Four Seasons as $$$$ acts had million-selling singles in the United States ("My Eyes Adored You" hit #1 on the Hot 100 for Valli in March, "Who Loves You" peaked at #3 in November for the group). In the United Kingdom, Tamla Motown released "The Night" as a single and had it reach the #7 position on the UK singles chart.

Valli had his first truly solo hit in the summer of 1975 (all of his prior "solo" hits were in fact Four Seasons productions) when the Bob Crewe-produced "Swearin' to God" followed "My Eyes Adored You" into the upper reaches of the Hot 100, peaking at the #6 position and capitalizing on the growing disco craze. The song was released in three forms: the eight-minute long album version, the ten-minute-long extended 12 inch single version, and the three-minute-long single version.

The album Who Loves You became a surprise million-seller for the group as it was the first Four Seasons album to feature lead vocals by other than Valli. Gerry Polci did the majority of the lead vocals, sharing them with Valli and Ciccone. The title song had Valli doing the lead on the verses, but none of the trademark falsettos in the chorus; "December, 1963 (Oh, What a Night)" had Polci sing lead in the first verse, Ciccone in the second, and Valli doing lead vocals only in the chorus; "Silver Star" had Polci doing all the lead vocals, with Valli absent from the recording aside from doing some harmony vocals.

The following year had The Four Seasons hitting #1 for the fifth time with "December, 1963". Although the group also scored a minor hit with "Silver Star", "December 1963" also seems to mark the end of the Seasons' hit recording (a remix version of "December 1963" returned them briefly to the upper reaches of the Billboard singles charts almost two decades later).


[edit] After disco
The success of Who Loves You increased the popularity of the Four Seasons as a touring group and reignited record, but when 1977's Helicon album was released by Warner Bros., the climate was changing again, $$$$ for the group and for Valli. The new record yielded only one single, "Down the Hall", which limped onto the Hot 100. At the same time, Valli's string of solo hits had come to an end as he parted ways with Private Stock Records.

Excluding Valli's 1978 "Grease" single, which hit #1 while the motion picture of the same name became the highest-grossing musical in cinematic history, the last Top 40 hit for the group was behind them. $$$$ Valli and the group released singles and albums on an occasional basis, but after "Grease", only a remixed version of their biggest seller, "December 1963" would visit the upper half of the Hot 100 (in 1994).

In 1984, a long-awaited collaboration between the Four Seasons and the Beach Boys, "East Meets West", was released on FBI Records, owned by the Four Seasons Partnership. The record didn't sell.

Even after the rise and fall of the group's sales in the disco era, The Four Seasons, in one version or another (the group became a sextet as Jerry Corbetta, formerly of Sugarloaf, joined the lineup), continued to be a popular touring act, with Valli being the only constant in the midst of a fluctuating lineup. Although Gaudio is still officially part of the group (he and Valli are still equal partners in the Four Seasons Partnership), he now restricts his activities to writing, producing, and the occasional studio work.

The latest edition of The Four Seasons, including Valli, is conducting a North American tour in the latter half of 2007. Incidental to this tour, the massive 3-CD + 1 DVD box set ""Jersey Beat: The Music Of Frankie Valli & The 4 Seasons"" was released in mid-2007, marketed as the most comprehensive collection of Four Seasons music yet. The album title "Jersey Beat" is a play on $$$$ "Jersey Boys," a musical play about the Four Seasons, and "Mersey Beat," a reference to the early Beatles music scene alongside the Mersey River in Liverpool, England.

moosa1
09-11-2007, 03:30 PM
اهتم الإسلام ببر الوالدين والإحسان إليهما والعناية بهما، وهو بذلك يسبق النظم المستحدثة في الغرب مثل: ( رعاية الشيخوخة، ورعاية الأمومة والمسنين ) حيث جاء بأوامر صريحة تلزم المؤمن ببر والديه وطاعتهما قال تعالى موصيا عباده: وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ إِحْسَاناً [الأحقاف:15]، وقرن برهما بالأمر بعبادته في كثير من الآيات؛ برهان ذلك قوله تعالى: وَقَضَى رَبُّكَ أَلاَّ تَعْبُدُواْ إِلاَّ إِيَّاهُ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَاناً [الإسراء:23]، وقوله تعالى: وَاعْبُدُواْ اللّهَ وَلاَ تُشْرِكُواْ بِهِ شَيْئاً وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَاناً [النساء:36]، وجاء ذكر الإحسان إلى الوالدين بعد توحيده عز وجل لبيان قدرهما وعظم حقهما ووجوب برهما. قال القرطبي رحمه الله في قوله تعالى: وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَاناً [الأنعام:151]، أي: ( برهما وحفظهما وصيانتهما وامتثال أوامرهما ).


أنواع البر:

أنواع بر الوالدين كثيرة بحسب الحال وحسب الحاجة ومنها:

1 - فعل الخير وإتمام الصلة وحسن الصحبة، وهو في حق الوالدين من أوجب الواجبات. وقد جاء الإحسان في الآيات السابقة بصيغة التنكير مما يدل على أنه عام يشمل الإحسان في القول والعمل والأخذ والعطاء والأمر والنهي، وهو عام مطلق يدخل تحته ما يرضي الإبن وما لا يرضيه إلا أنه لا طاعة لمخلوق في معصية الخالق.

2 - لا ينبغي للإبن أن يتضجر منهما ولو بكلمة أف بل يجب الخضوع لأمرهما، وخفض الجناح لهما، ومعاملتها باللطف والتوقير وعدم الترفع عليهما.

3 - عدم رفع الصوت عليهما أو مقاطعتهما في الكلام، وعدم مجادلتهما والكذب عليهما، وعدم إزعاجهما إذا كانا نائمين، وإشعارهما بالذل لهما، وتقديمهما في الكلام والمشي إحتراماً لهما وإجلالاً لقدرهما.

4 - شكرهما الذي جاء مقروناً بشكر الله والدعاء لهما لقوله تعالى: وَقُل رَّبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيَانِي صَغِيراً [الإسراء:24]. وأن يؤثرهما على رضا نفسه وزوجته وأولاده.

5 - اختصاص الأم بمزيد من البر لحاجتها وضعفها وسهرها وتعبها في الحمل والولادة والرضاعة. والبر يكون بمعنى حسن الصحبة والعشرة وبمعنى الطاعة والصلة لقوله تعالى: وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُ وَهْناً عَلَى وَهْنٍ وَفِصَالُهُ فِي عَامَيْنِ أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيْكَ إِلَيَّ الْمَصِيرُ [لقمان:14]، ولحديث: { إن الله حرم عليكم عقوق الأمهات } [متفق عليه] الحديث.

6 - الإحسان إليهما وتقديم أمرهما وطلبهما، ومجاهدة النفس برضاهما حتى وإن كانا غير مسلمين لقوله تعالى: وَإِن جَاهَدَاكَ عَلى أَن تُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلَا تُطِعْهُمَا وَصَاحِبْهُمَا فِي الدُّنْيَا مَعْرُوفاً [لقمان:15].

7 - رعايتهما وخاصة عند الكبر وملاطفتهما وإدخال السرور عليهما وحفظهما من كل سوء. وأن يقدم لهما كل ما يرغبان فيه ويحتاجان إليه.

8 - الإنفاق عليهما عند الحاجة، قال تعالى: قُلْ مَا أَنفَقْتُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ فَلِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالأَقْرَبِينَ [البقرة:215]، وتعتبر الخالة بمنزلة الأم لحديث: { الخالة بمنزلة الأم } [رواه الترمذي وقال حديث صحيح].

9 - استئذانهما قبل السفر وأخذ موافقتهما إلا في حج فرض قال القرطبي رحمه الله: ( من الإحسان إليهما والبر بهما إذا لم يتعين الجهاد ألا يجاهد إلا بإذنهما).

10 - الدعاء لهما بعد موتهما وبر صديقهما وإنفاذ وصيتهما.


فضل بر الوالدين:

دلت نصوص شرعية على فضل بر الوالدين وكونه مفتاح الخير منها:

1 - أنه سبب لدخول الجنة: فعن أبي هريرة عن النبي قال: { رغم أنفه، رغم أنفه، رغم أنفه }، قيل: من يا رسول الله؟ قال: { من أدرك والديه عند الكبر أحدهما أو كليهما ثم لم يدخل الجنة } [رواه مسلم والترمذي].

2 - كونه من أحب الأعمال إلى الله: عن أبي عبدالرحن عبدالله بن مسعود قال: سألت النبي أي العمل أحب إلى الله؟ قال: { الصلاة على وقتها }. قلت: ثم أي؟ قال: { بر الوالدين }. قلت: ثم أي؟ قال: { الجهاد في سبيل الله } [متفق عليه].

3 - إن بر الوالدين مقدم على الجهاد في سبيل الله عز وجل: عن عبدالله بن عمرو بن العاص رضي الله عنهما قال: ( أقبل رجل إلى النبي فقال أبايعك على الهجرة والجهاد أبتغي الأجر من الله تعالى، فقال : { هل من والديك أحد حي؟ } قال: نعم بل كلاهما. قال: { فتبتغي الأجر من الله تعالى؟ } قال: نعم. قال: { فارجع فأحسن صحبتهما } ) [متفق عليه] وهذا لفظ مسلم وفي رواية لهما: { جاء رجل فاستأذنه في الجهاد، فقال: أحي والداك؟ قال: نعم. قال: ففيهما فجاهد }.

4 - رضا الرب في رضا الوالدين: عن عبدالله بن عمرو بن العاص رضي الله عنهما عن النبي قال: { رضا الرب في رضا الوالدين، وسخط الرب في سخط الوالدين } [رواه الترمذي وصححه إبن حبان والحاكم].

5 - في البر منجاة من مصائب الدنيا بل هو سبب تفريج الكروب وذهاب الهم والحزن كما ورد في شأن نجاة أصحاب الغار، وكان أحدهم باراً بوالديه يقدمهما على زوجته وأولاده.


التحذير من العقوق:

وعكس البر العقوق، ونتيجته وخيمة لحديث أبي محمد جبير بن مطعم أن رسول الله قال: { لا يدخل الجنة قاطع }. قال سفيان في روايته: ( يعني قاطع رحم ) [رواه البخاري ومسلم] والعقوق: هو العق والقطع، وهو من الكبائر بل كما وصفه الرسول من أكبر الكبائر وفي الحديث المتفق عليه: { ألا أنبئكم بأكبر الكبائر؟ قلنا بلى يا رسول الله، قال: الإشراك بالله، وعقوق الوالدين. وكان متكئاً وجلس فقال: ألا وقول الزور وشهادة الزور، فما زال يرددها حتى قلنا ليته سكت }. والعق لغة: هو المخالفة، وضابطه عند العلماء أن يفعل مع والديه ما يتأذيان منه تأذياً ليس بالهيّن عُرفاً. وفي المحلى لابن حزم وشرح مسلم للنووي: ( اتفق أهل العلم على أن بر الوالدين فرض، وعلى أن عقوقهما من الكبائر، وذلك بالإجماع ) وعن أبي بكرة عن النبي قال: { كل الذنوب يؤخر الله تعالى ما شاء منها إلى يوم القيامة إلا عقوق الوالدين، فإن الله يعجله لصاحبه في الحياة قبل الموت } رواه الطبراني في الكبير والحاكم في المستدرك وصححاه].


البر بعد الموت:

وبر الوالدين لا يقتصر على فترة حياتهما بل يمتد إلى ما بعد مماتهما ويتسع ليشمل ذوي الأرحام وأصدقاء الوالدين؛ { جاء رجل من بني سلمة فقال: يا رسول الله. هل بقي من بر أبواي شيء أبرهما بعد موتهما؟ قال: نعم، الصلاة عليهما، والاستغفار لهما، وإنفاذ عهدهما بعدهما، وصلة الرحم التي لا توصل إلا بهما، وإكرام صديقهما } [رواه أبو داود والبيهقي].

ويمكن الحصول على البر بعد الموت بالدعاء لهما. قال الإمام أحمد: ( من دعا لهما في التحيات في الصلوات الخمس فقد برهما. ومن الأفضل: أن يتصدق الصدقة ويحتسب نصف أجرها لوالديه ).


أحكام شرعية خاصة بالوالدين:

لا حد على الوالدين في قصاص أو قطع أو قذف. وللأب أن يأخذ من مال ولده إذا احتاج بشرط أن لا يجحف به، ولا يأخذ شيئاً تعلقت به حاجته. ولا يأخذ من مال ولده فيعطيه الولد الآخر [المغني:6/522]، وإذا تعارض حق الأب وحق الأم فحق الأم مقدم لحديث: { أمك ثم أمك ثم أمك ثم أباك } [رواه الشيخان]، والمرأة إذا تزوجت فحق زوجها مقدم على حق والديها.

وقال في المقنع: ( وليس للإبن مطالبة أبيه بدين، ولا قيمة متلف، ولا أرش جناية ) قلت: وعلى الوالدين أن لا ينسيا دورهما في إعانة الولد على برهما، وذلك بالرفق به، والإحسان إليه، والتسوية بين الأولاد في المعاملة والعطاء. والله أعلم.

moosa1
09-11-2007, 03:32 PM
Thomas Edison
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Learn more about citing Wikipedia •Jump to: navigation, search
"Edison" redirects here. For other uses, see Edison (disambiguation).
Thomas Alva Edison


"Genius is one percent inspiration, ninety-nine percent perspiration." - Thomas Alva Edison, Harper's Monthly (September 1931)
Born February 11, 1847(1847-02-11)
Milan, Ohio
Died October 18, 1931 (aged 84)
West Orange, New Jersey

Occupation Inventor, entrepreneur
Religious stance Deist
Spouse Mary Edison, Mina Edison
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph and a long lasting light bulb. Dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park" by a newspaper reporter, he was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production to the process of invention, and therefore is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory.

Edison is considered one of the most prolific inventors in history, holding 1,093 U.S. patents in his name, as well as many patents in the United Kingdom, France and Germany.

$$$$$$$s [hide]
1 Early life
2 Marriages and children
3 Beginning his career
4 Menlo Park
4.1 Carbon telephone transmitter
4.2 Electric light
4.3 Electric power distribution
4.4 War of currents
4.5 Fluoroscopy
4.6 Work relations
4.7 Media inventions
5 Later years
6 Death
7 Views on politics, religion and $$$$physics
8 Criticism
9 Tributes
9.1 Places named for Edison
9.2 Museums and memorials
9.3 Companies bearing Edison's name
9.4 Awards named in honor of Edison
9.5 Honors and awards given to Edison
9.6 Other items named after Edison
10 Trivia
11 See also
12 Biographies
13 References
14 External links



Early life

Edison's birthplaceThomas Edison was born in Milan, Ohio and was raised in Port Huron, Michigan. He was the seventh and last child of Samuel Ogden Edison, Jr. (1804–1896) (born in Marshalltown, Nova Scotia, Canada) and Nancy Matthews Edison nee Elliott (1810–1871). His family was of Dutch origin.[1]


Thomas Edison as a boy.In school, the young Edison's mind often wandered, and his teacher the Reverend Engle was overheard calling him "addled." This ended Edison's three months of official schooling. He recalled later, "My mother was the making of me. She was so true, so sure of me; and I felt I had something to live for, someone I must not disappoint." His mother then home schooled him.[2] Much of his education came from reading R.G. Parker's School of Natural Philosophy.

The cause of Edison's deafness has been attributed to a bout of scarlet fever during childhood and recurring untreated middle ear infections. Edison around the middle of his career attributed the hearing loss to being struck on the ears by a train conductor when his chemical lab in a boxcar caught fire. In his later years he modified the story to say the injury occurred when the conductor, in helping him onto a moving train, lifted him by the ears.[3][4]

Edison's family was forced to move to Port Huron, Michigan when the railroad bypassed Milan in 1854,[5] but his life there was bittersweet. This began Edison's long streak of entrepreneurial ventures as he discovered his talents as a businessman. These talents would eventually lead him to found General Electric, which is still a publicly traded company, and 13 other companies. He sold candy and newspapers on trains running from Port Huron to Detroit, as well as vegetables that he sold to supplement his income.

Edison became a telegraph operator after he saved three-year-old Jimmie MacKenzie from being struck by a runaway train. Jimmie's father, station agent J.U. MacKenzie of Mount Clemens, Michigan, was so grateful that he trained Edison as a telegraph operator. Edison's first telegraphy job away from Port Huron was at Stratford Junction, Ontario on the Grand Trunk Railway.[6] In 1866, at the age of 19, Thomas Edison moved to Louisville, Kentucky as an employee of Western Union working the Associated Press bureau news wire. Edison requested the night shift at work which allowed him plenty of time to spend at his two favorite pastimes -- reading and experimenting. However, it was the latter that eventually cost him his job. One night in 1867, he was working with a battery when he spilled sulphuric acid onto the floor. It ran between the floorboards and onto his boss' desk below. The next morning he was fired.[7]

One of his mentors during those early years was a fellow telegrapher and inventor named Franklin Leonard Pope, who allowed the impoverished youth to live and work in the basement of his Elizabeth, New Jersey, home.

Some of his earliest inventions were related to telegraphy, including a stock ticker. Edison's first patent was for the electric vote recorder, (U. S. Patent 90,646),[8] which was granted on June 1, 1869.[9]


Marriages and children
On December 25, 1871, Edison married 16-year-old Mary Stilwell, whom he had met two months earlier. They had three children:

Marion Estelle Edison (1873–1965) who was nicknamed "Dot"
Thomas Alva Edison, Jr. (1876–1935) who was nicknamed "Dash"
William Leslie Edison (1878–1937)[10]
Mary Edison died on August 9, 1884.

On February 24, 1886, at the age of thirty-nine, Edison married 19-year-old Mina Miller in Akron, Ohio.[11] They also had three children:

Madeleine Edison (1888–1979) who married John Eyre Sloane[12][13]
Charles Edison (1890–1969), who took over the company upon his father's death and who later was elected Governor of New Jersey[14] He is buried in Rosedale Cemetery in Orange, New Jersey.
Theodore Miller Edison (1898–1992).[15]
Mina outlived Thomas Edison, dying on August 24, 1947.[16][17]


Beginning his career

Edison and early phonograph, 1877Thomas Edison began his career as an inventor in Newark, New Jersey, with the automatic repeater and his other improved telegraphic devices, but the invention which first gained him fame was the phonograph in 1877. This accomplishment was so unexpected by the public at large as to appear almost magical. Edison became known as "The Wizard of Menlo Park," New Jersey, where he lived. His first phonograph recorded on tinfoil around a grooved cylinder and had poor sound quality. The tinfoil recordings could only be replayed a few times. In the 1880s, a redesigned model using wax-coated cardboard cylinders was produced by Alexander Graham Bell, Chichester Bell, and Charles Tainter. This was one reason that Thomas Edison continued work on his own "Perfected Phonograph."

Mary Had a Little Lamb

Thomas Edison saying "Mary Had a Little Lamb"=Ogg

Problems playing the files? See media help.


Menlo Park

Edison's Menlo Park Laboratory, removed to Greenfield Village in Dearborn, Michigan. (Note the organ against the back wall)
Thomas Edison's first light bulb used to demonstrate his invention at Menlo Park.
U.S. Patent #223898 Electric LampEdison's major innovation was the first industrial research lab, which was built in Menlo Park, New Jersey. It was the first institution set up with the specific purpose of producing constant technological innovation and improvement. Edison was legally attributed with most of the inventions produced there, though many employees carried out research and development work under his direction.

William Joseph Hammer, a consulting electrical engineer, began his duties as a laboratory assistant to Edison in December 1879. He assisted in experiments on the telephone, phonograph, electric railway, iron ore separator, electric lighting, and other developing inventions. However, Hammer worked primarily on the incandescent electric lamp and was put in charge of tests and records on that device. In 1880, he was appointed chief engineer of the Edison Lamp Works. In his first year, the plant under General Manager Francis Robbins Upton turned out 50,000 lamps. According to Edison, Hammer was "a pioneer of incandescent electric lighting."

Nearly all of Edison's patents were utility patents, which were protected for a 17 year period and included inventions or processes that are electrical, mechanical, or chemical in nature. About a dozen were design patents, which protect an ornamental design for up to a 14 year period. Like most patents, the inventions he described were improvements over prior art. The phonograph patent, on the other hand, was unprecedented as the first device to record and reproduce sounds.[18] Edison did not invent the first electric light bulb, but instead invented the first commercially $$$$$$$$$ incandescent light. Several designs had already been developed by earlier inventors including the patent he purchased from Henry Woodward and Mathew Evans, Moses G. Farmer,[19] Joseph Swan, James Bowman Lindsay, William Sawyer, Sir Humphry Davy, and Heinrich Göbel. Some of these early bulbs had such flaws as extremely short life, high expense to produce, and high current draw, making them difficult to apply on a large scale commercially. In 1878, Edison applied the term filament to the element of glowing wire carrying the current, although English inventor Joseph Swan had used the term prior to this. Edison took the features of these earlier designs and set his workers to the task of creating longer-lasting bulbs. By 1879, he had produced a new concept: a high resistance lamp in a very high vacuum, which would burn for hundreds of hours. While the earlier inventors had produced electric lighting in laboratory conditions dating back to a demonstration of a glowing wire by Alessandro Volta in 1800, Edison concentrated on commercial application and was able to sell the concept to homes and businesses by mass-producing relatively long-lasting light bulbs and creating a complete system for the generation and distribution of electricity.

The Menlo Park research lab was made possible by the sale of the quadruplex telegraph that Edison invented in 1874, which could send four simultaneous telegraph signals over the same wire. When Edison asked Western Union to make an offer, he was shocked at the unexpectedly large amount that Western Union offered; the patent rights were sold for $10,000. The quadruplex telegraph was Edison's first big financial success.

In just over a decade Edison's Menlo Park laboratory had expanded to consume two city blocks. Edison said he wanted the lab to have "a stock of almost every conceivable material." A newspaper article printed in 1887 reveals the seriousness of his claim, stating the lab contained "eight thousand kinds of chemicals, every kind of screw made, every size of needle, every kind of cord or wire, hair of humans, horses, hogs, cows, rabbits, goats, minx, camels...silk in every $$$$ure, cocoons, various kinds of hoofs, shark's teeth, deer horns, tortoise $$$$l...cork, resin, varnish and oil, ostrich feathers, a peacock's tail, jet, amber, rubber, all ores..." and the list goes on.[20]

With Menlo Park, Edison had created the first industrial laboratory concerned with creating knowledge and then controlling its application.


Carbon telephone transmitter
In 1877-1878, Edison invented and developed the carbon microphone used in all telephones along with the Bell receiver until the 1980s. After protracted patent litigation, a federal court ruled in 1892 that Edison and not Emile Berliner was the inventor of the carbon microphone. (Josephson, p146). The carbon microphone was also used in radio broadcasting and public address work through the 1920s.


Electric light
Main article: History of the light bulb
After many experiments with platinum and other $$$$l filaments, Edison returned to a carbon filament. The first successful test was on October 22, 1879;[21] and lasted 13.5 hours. Edison continued to improve this design and by November 4, 1879, filed for U.S. patent 223,898 (granted on January 27, 1880) for an electric lamp using "a carbon filament or strip coiled and connected ... to platina contact wires."[22] Although the patent described several ways of creating the carbon filament including "cotton and linen thread, wood splints, papers coiled in various ways,"[22] it was not until several months after the patent was granted that Edison and his team discovered a carbonized bamboo filament could last over 1200 hours.


Edison in 1878In 1878, Edison formed the Edison Electric Light Company in New York City with several financiers, including J. P. Morgan and the members of the Vanderbilt family. Edison made the first public demonstration of his incandescent light bulb on December 31, 1879, in Menlo Park. It was during this time that he said, "We will make electricity so cheap that only the rich will burn candles."[23]

On October 8, 1883, the U.S. patent office ruled that Edison's patent was based on the work of William Sawyer and was therefore invalid. Litigation continued for nearly six years, until October 6, 1889, when a judge ruled that Edison's electric light improvement claim for "a filament of carbon of high resistance" was valid. To avoid a possible court battle with Joseph Swan, whose British patent had been awarded a year before Edison's, he and Swan formed a joint company called Ediswan to market the invention in Britain.

The Mahen Theatre in Brno, in what is now the Czech Republic, was the first public building in the world to use Edison's electric lamps, with the installation supervised by Edison's assistant in the invention of the lamp, Francis Jehl. [24]

Edison speech on light bulb

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Video clip of Thomas Edison talking about the invention of the light bulb, late 1920s.


Problems seeing the videos? See media help.


Electric power distribution
Edison patented an electric distribution system in 1880, which was essential to capitalize on the invention of the electric lamp. On December 17, 1880, Edison founded the Edison Electric Illuminating Company. The company established the first investor-owned electric utility in 1882 on Pearl Street Station, New York City. It was on September 4, 1882, that Edison switched on his Pearl Street generating station's electrical power distribution system, which provided 110 volts direct current (DC) to 59 customers in lower Manhattan.

Earlier in the year, in January 1882 he had switched on the first steam generating power station at Holborn Viaduct in London. The DC supply system provided electricity supplies to street lamps and several private dwellings within a short distance of the station. On January 19, 1883, the first standardized incandescent electric lighting system employing overhead wires began service in Roselle, New Jersey.


War of currents
Main article: War of Currents

Extravagant displays of electric lights quickly became a feature of public events, as this picture from the 1897 Tennessee Centennial Exposition shows.George Westinghouse and Edison became adversaries because of Edison's promotion of direct current for electric power distribution instead of the more easily transmitted alternating current (AC) system invented by Nikola Tesla and promoted by Westinghouse. Unlike DC, AC could be stepped up to very high voltages with transformers, sent over thinner and less expensive wires, and stepped down again at the destination for distribution to users.

Despite Edison's contempt for capital punishment, the war against AC led Edison to become involved in the development and promotion of the electric chair as a demonstration of AC's greater lethal potential versus the "safer" DC. Edison went on to carry out a brief but intense campaign to ban the use of AC or to limit the allowable voltage for safety purposes. As part of this campaign, Edison's employees publicly electrocuted dogs, cats, and in one case, an elephant[25] to demonstrate the dangers of AC. AC replaced DC in most instances of generation and power distribution, enormously extending the range and improving the efficiency of power distribution.

Though widespread use of DC ultimately lost favor for distribution, it exists today primarily in long-distance high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems. Low voltage DC distribution continued to be used in high density downtown areas for many years and was replaced by AC low voltage network distribution in many central business districts. DC had the advantage that large battery banks could maintain continuous power through brief interruptions of the electric supply from generators and the transmission system. Utilities such as Commonwealth Edison in Chicago had rotary converters, also known as motor-generator sets, which could change DC to AC and AC to various frequencies in the early to mid 20th century. Utilities supplied rectifiers to convert the low voltage AC to DC for such DC loads as elevators, fans and pumps. There were still 1,600 DC customers in downtown New York City when the service was discontinued in 2005. The New York City Subway system is still run by DC power to this day.


Fluoroscopy
Edison is credited with designing and producing the first commercially available fluoroscope, the machine that takes radiographs (colloquially known as "X-rays"). Until Edison came along and discovered that calcium tungstate fluoroscopy screens produced brighter images than the barium platinocyanide screens originally used by Wilhelm Röntgen, the technology was only capable of producing very faint images. The fundamental design of Edison's fluoroscope is still in use today, despite the fact that Edison himself abandoned the project after nearly losing his own eyesight and seriously maiming his assistant, Clarence Dally. Dally had made himself an enthusiastic human guinea pig for the fluoroscopy project and in the process been exposed to a poisonous dose of radiation. He later died of injuries related to the exposure. In 1903, a shaken Edison said "Don't talk to me about X-rays, I am afraid of them."[26]


Work relations
Frank J. Sprague, a competent mathematician and former naval officer, was recruited by Edward H. Johnson and joined the Edison organization in 1883. One of Sprague's significant contributions to the Edison Laboratory at Menlo Park was to expand Edison's mathematical methods. (Despite the common belief that Edison did not use mathematics, analysis of his notebooks reveal that he was an astute user of mathematical analysis,[27] for example, determining the critical parameters of his electric lighting system including lamp resistance by a sophisticated analysis of Ohm's Law, Joule's Law and economics.) A key to Edison's success was a holistic rather than reductionist approach to invention, making extensive use of trial and error when no suitable theory existed. Since Sprague joined Edison in 1883 and Edison's output of patents peaked in 1880,[28] it could be interpreted that the shift towards a reductionist analytical approach may not have been a positive move for Edison. Sprague's important analytical contributions, including correcting Edison's system of mains and feeders for central station distribution, form a counter argument to this. In 1884, Sprague decided his interests in the exploitation of electricity lay elsewhere, and he left Edison to found the Sprague Electric Railway & Motor Company. However, Sprague, who later developed many electrical innovations, always credited Edison for their work together.

Another of Edison's assistants was Nikola Tesla, who claimed that Edison promised him $50,000 if he succeeded in making improvements to his DC generation plants. Tesla claimed that several months later, when he had finished the work and asked to be paid, Edison said, "When you become a full-fledged American you will appreciate an American $$$$."[29] Tesla immediately resigned. This anecdote is somewhat doubtful, since at Tesla's salary of $18 per week the bonus would have amounted to over 53 years pay, and the amount was equal to the initial capital of the company. Tesla resigned when he was refused a raise to $25 per week.[30] Although Tesla accepted an Edison Medal later in life and professed a high opinion of Edison as an inventor and engineer, he remained bitter. The day after Edison died, the New York Times contained extensive coverage of Edison's life, with the only negative opinion coming from Tesla who was quoted as saying, "He had no hobby, cared for no sort of amusement of any kind and lived in utter disregard of the most elementary rules of hygiene" and that, "His method was inefficient in the extreme, for an immense ground had to be covered to get anything at all unless blind chance intervened and, at first, I was almost a sorry witness of his doings, knowing that just a little theory and calculation would have saved him 90 percent of the labor. But he had a veritable contempt for book learning and mathematical knowledge, trusting himself entirely to his inventor's instinct and $$$$$$$$$ American sense." When Edison was a very old man and close to death, he said, in looking back, that the biggest mistake he had made was that he never respected Tesla or his work.[31]

There were 28 men recognized as Edison Pioneers.


Media inventions
The key to Edison's fortunes was telegraphy. With knowledge gained from years of working as a telegraph operator, he learned the basics of electricity. This allowed him to make his early fortune with the stock ticker, the first electricity-based broadcast system. Edison patented the sound recording and reproducing phonograph (or gramophone in British English) in 1878. Edison was also granted a patent for the motion picture camera or "Kinetograph". He did the electromechanical design, while his employee W.K.L. Dickson, a photographer, worked on the photographic and optical development. Much of the credit for the invention belongs to Dickson.[21] In 1891, Thomas Edison built a Kinetoscope, or peep-hole viewer. This device was installed in penny arcades, where people could watch short, simple films. The kinetograph and kinetoscope were $$$$ first publicly exhibited May 20, 1891.[32]

On August 9, 1892, Edison received a patent for a two-way telegraph. In April 1896, Thomas Armat's Vitascope, manufactured by the Edison factory and marketed in Edison's name, was used to project motion pictures in public screenings in New York City. Later he exhibited motion pictures with voice soundtrack on cylinder recordings, mechanically synchronized with the film.

Officially the kinetoscope entered in Europe when the rich American Businessman Irving T. Bush (1869-1948) bought from the Continental Commerce Company of Franck Z. Maguire and Joseph D. Bachus a dozen machines. Bush placed from October 17, 1894 on the first kinetoscopes in London. At the same time the French company Kinétoscope Edison Michel et Alexis Werner bought these machines for the market in France. In the last three months of 1894 The Continental Commerce Company sold hundreds of kinetoscopes in Europe (i.e. the Netherlands and Italy). In Germany and in Austria-Hungary the kinetoscope was introduced by the Deutsche-österreichische-Edison-Kinetoscop Gesellschaft, founded by the Ludwig Stollwerck [33] of the Schokoladen-Süsswarenfabrik Stollwerck & Co of Cologne. The first kinetoscopes arrived in Belgium at the Fairs in early 1895. The Edison's Kinétoscope Français, a Belgian company, was founded in Brussels on January 15, 1895 with the rights to sell the kinetoscopes in Monaco, France and the French colonies. The main investors in this company were Belgian industrialists. On May 14, 1895 the Edison's Kinétoscope Belge was founded in Brussels. The businessman Ladislas-Victor Lewitzki, living in London but active in Belgium and France, took the initiative in starting this business. He had contacts with Leon Gaumont and the American Mutoscope and Biograph Co. In 1898 he also became shareholder of the Biograph and Mutoscope Company for France.[34]

In 1908, Edison started the Motion Picture Patents Company, which was a conglomerate of nine major film studios (commonly known as the Edison Trust). Thomas Edison was the first honorary fellow of the Acoustical Society of America, which was founded in 1929.


Later years

Edison celebrates his 82nd birthday with President-elect Herbert Hoover, Henry Ford, and Harvey Firestone. Ft. Myers, Florida, February 11, 1929.In the 1880s, Thomas Edison bought property in Fort Myers, Florida, and built Seminole Lodge as a winter retreat. Henry Ford, the automobile magnate, later lived a few hundred feet away from Edison at his winter retreat, The Mangoes. Edison even contributed technology to the automobile. They were friends until Edison's death.

Edison purchased a home known as "Glenmont" in 1886 as a wedding gift for Mina in Llewellyn Park in West Orange, New Jersey.

In 1901, he visited the Sudbury area as a mining prospector, and is credited with the original discovery of the Falconbridge ore body. His attempts to actually mine the ore body were not successful, however, and he abandoned his mining claim in 1903.[35] A street in Falconbridge, as well as the Edison Building, which served as the head office of Falconbridge Mines, are named for him.

Edison became the owner of his Milan, Ohio, birthplace in 1906. On his last visit, in 1923, he was shocked to find his old home still lit by lamps and candles.

Influenced by a fad diet that was popular in the day, in his last few years "the only liquid he consumed was a pint of milk every three hours."[21] He believed this diet would restore his health.


Henry Ford, Edison and FirestoneEdison was active in business right up to the end. Just months before his death in 1931, the Lackawanna Railroad implemented electric trains in suburban service from Hoboken to Gladstone, Montclair and Dover in New Jersey. Transmission was by means of an overhead catenary system, with the entire project under the guidance of Thomas Edison. To the surprise of many, Thomas Edison was at the throttle of the very first MU (Multiple-Unit) train to depart Lackawanna Terminal in Hoboken, driving the train all the way to Dover. As another tribute to his lasting legacy, the same fleet of cars Edison deployed on the Lackawanna in 1931 served commuters until their retirement in 1984. A special plaque commemorating the joint achievement of $$$$ the railway and Edison, can be seen today in the waiting room of Lackawanna Terminal in Hoboken, presently operated by New Jersey Transit.[citation needed]


Death
Thomas Edison died on October 18, 1931, in his home, "Glenmont" in Llewellyn Park in West Orange, New Jersey, which he had purchased in 1886 as a wedding gift for Mina.[36]

His final words to his wife were "It is very beautiful over there."


Seminole LodgeMina died in 1947. Edison's last breath is reportedly contained in a test tube at the Henry Ford Museum. Ford reportedly convinced Charles Edison to seal a test tube of air in the inventor's room shortly after his death, as a memento. A plaster death mask was also made.[37]


Views on politics, religion and $$$$physics
Historian Paul Israel has characterized Edison as a "freethinker."[21] Edison was heavily influenced by Thomas Paine's Age of Reason.[21] Edison defended Paine's "scientific deism," saying, "He has been called an atheist, but atheist he was not. Paine believed in a supreme intelligence, as representing the idea which other men often express by the name of deity."[21] In an October 2, 1910 interview in the New York Times Magazine, Edison stated:

Nature is what we know. We do not know the gods of religions. And nature is not kind, or merciful, or loving. If God made me -- the fabled God of the three qualities of which I spoke: mercy, kindness, love -- He also made the fish I catch and eat. And where do His mercy, kindness, and love for that fish come in? No; nature made us -- nature did it all -- not the gods of the religions.[38]

Edison was accused of atheism for these remarks, and although he did not allow himself to be drawn into the controversy publicly, he defended himself in a private letter. "You have misunderstood the whole article, because you jumped to the conclusion that it denies the existence of God. There is no such denial, what you call God I call Nature, the Supreme intelligence that rules matter. All the article states is that it is doubtful in my opinion if our intelligence or soul or whatever one may call it lives hereafter as an entity or disperses back again from whence it came, scattered amongst the cells of which we are made."[21]


Criticism
This section overlaps with other sections; it should be combined with the rest of the article.
Please post any comments on this issue on the talk page.

Although in his early years Edison worked alone, he built up a research and development team to a considerable number while at his Menlo Park research laboratory. His staff were generally told to carry out his directions in conducting research and he drove them hard to produce results. The large research group, which included engineers and other workers, based much of their research on work done by others before them.

Many other inventors had worked on the development of an incandescent light bulb and some had even patented them before Edison, although none before Swan's was shown to be usable in practice or gained acceptance. Edison's own inventions are often mistakenly credited as Edison's work alone, when in fact a number of employees actually worked under his direction. Many people refer to Edison's work as the first incandescent light bulb with high resistance, a small radiating area, and a commercially and uninhibitally but still useful lifetime. In other words his application for patent was the first design suitable for use by energy companies with central generating stations.

Edison's true success, like that of his friend Henry Ford, was in his ability to maximize profits through establishment of mass-production systems and intellectual property rights. This dampened the success of less profitable work by others who were focused on inventing longer-lasting high-efficiency technology.[39][40] Edison was often an opponent to technological innovation and change, perhaps because they threatened his business model. In 1887 there were 121 Edison power stations in the United States that delivered DC electricity to customers. When the limitations of Direct Current (DC) were discussed by the public, Edison launched a propaganda campaign to convince people that Alternating Current (AC) was far too dangerous to use. The problem with DC was that the power plants could only economically deliver DC electricity to customers about one and a half miles from the generating station, so it was only suitable for central business districts. When George Westinghouse suggested using high-voltage AC instead, as it could carry electricity hundreds of miles with marginal loss of power, Edison waged a "War of Currents" to prevent AC from being adopted. He repeatedly electrocuted animals with 1000V of alternating current to 'prove' that AC was unsafe, even though protection from electrocution by AC or DC is essentially the same. One of the more notable occasions when Edison electrocuted animals was when in 1903, his workers electrocuted Topsy the elephant at Luna Park, near Coney Island, after she had killed several men and her owners wanted her put to death. His company filmed the electrocution. Thomas Edison thus introduced the practice of execution by electrocution.

The AC system was eventually adopted, despite Edison staging public electrocutions. The system used today was devised by many contributors including Nikola Tesla, George Westinghouse, Lucien Gaulard, John Dixon Gibbs, and Oliver Shallenger from 1881 to 1889.

In 1902 agents of Thomas Edison bribed a theater owner in London for a copy of A Trip to the Moon by Georges Méliès. Edison then made hundreds of copies and showed them in New York City.[1] Méliès received no compensation. He was counting on taking the film to US and recapture the huge cost of it by showing it throughout the US when he realized it has already been showing in the US by Edison. This bankrupted Méliès.[41] Other exhibitors similarly routinely copied and exhibited each others films.[42] To better protect the copyrights on his films, Edison deposited prints of them on long strips of photographic paper with the U.S. copyright office. Ironically, these paper prints survived longer and in better condition than the actual films of that era.[43]


Tributes

Statue of Thomas Edison in Dearborn, Michigan.
Places named for Edison
Many tributes have been made to Thomas Edison. Several places and objects have been named after him, including the town of Edison, New Jersey.

Thomas Edison State College, a nationally-known college for adult learners is in Trenton, New Jersey. There are numerous Edison High Schools around the country.


Museums and memorials
There is a Thomas Alva Edison Memorial Tower and Museum in the town of Edison. The 13.5 acre (55,000 m²) Glenmont property where the remains of Edison and his wife, Mina, buried is maintained by the National Park Service as the Edison National Historic Site.

In Beaumont, Texas there is an Edison Museum, even though Edison never visited Beaumont.

The City Hotel, in Sunbury, Pennsylvania, was the first building to be lit with Edison's three-wire system. The hotel was renamed The Hotel Edison, and retains that name today.

The Port Huron Museums, in Port Huron, Michigan, restored the original depot that Thomas Edison worked out of as a young newsbutcher. The depot has appropriately been named the Thomas Edison Depot Museum. The town has many Edison historical landmarks including the gravesites of Edison's parents.

In Detroit, the Edison Memorial Fountain in Grand Circus Park was created to honor his achievements. The limestone fountain was dedicated October 21, 1929.


Companies bearing Edison's name
Edison General Electric, merged with Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric
Commonwealth Edison, now part of Exelon
Consolidated Edison
Edison International
Southern California Edison
Edison Mission Energy
Edison Capital
Detroit Edison, a unit of DTE Energy
Edison Sault Electric Company, a unit of Wisconsin Energy
FirstEnergy
Metropolitan Edison
Ohio Edison
Toledo Edison
Edison S.p.A., a unit of Italenergia
Boston Edison, a unit of NSTAR
WEEI radio station in Boston, established by Edison Electric Illuminating Company (hence the call letters), the forerunner of Boston Edison




Awards named in honor of Edison
The Edison Medal was created on February 11, 1904, by a group of Edison's friends and associates. Four years later the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE), later IEEE, entered into an agreement with the group to present the medal as its highest award. The first medal was presented in 1909 to Elihu Thomson, and ironically, was awarded to Nikola Tesla in 1917. The Edison Medal is the oldest award in the area of electrical and electronics engineering, and is presented annually "for a career of meritorious achievement in electrical science, electrical engineering or the electrical arts."

In the Netherlands, major music awards are named the Edison Award after him.


Honors and awards given to Edison
Life magazine (USA), in a special double issue, placed Edison first in the list of the "100 Most Important People in the Last 1000 Years," noting that the light bulb he promoted "lit up the world." He was ranked thirty-fifth on Michael H. Hart's list of the most influential figures in history. In 1940, his life was $$$$$$$$ed on the screen when Spencer Tracy starred as Edison in Edison, The Man." He has been called the fifteenth Greatest American.

In recognition of the enormous contribution inventors make to the nation and the world, the Congress, pursuant to Senate Joint Resolution 140 (Public Law 97 - 198), has designated February 11, the anniversary of the birth of Thomas Alva Edison, as National Inventor's Day.

In 1887, Edison won the Matteucci Medal.


Other items named after Edison
The United States Navy named the USS Edison (DD-439), a Gleaves class destroyer, in his honor in 1940. The ship was decommissioned a few months after the end of World War II. In 1962, the Navy commissioned USS Thomas A. Edison (SSBN-610), a fleet ballistic missile $$$$$$$-powered submarine. Decommissioned on 1 December 1983, Thomas A. Edison was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register on April 30, 1986. She went through the Navy’s $$$$$$$ Powered Ship and Submarine Recycling Program at Bremerton, Washington, beginning on October 1, 1996. When she finished the program on December 1, 1997, she ceased to exist as a complete ship and was listed as scrapped.

The "Incredible Machines: Contraptions" game series has an alligator with the name Edison (with other animals given scientist names).

In 1879, Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam wrote the book "L'Ève Future" (translated into English as "Tomorrow's Eve"), about a fictional Thomas Edison who creates the ideal (artificial) woman.[44]


Trivia
Trivia sections are discouraged under Wikipedia guidelines.
The article could be improved by integrating relevant items and removing inappropriate ones.

Edison was a strong supporter of Montessori schools in the United States.[45]
While working with Alexander Graham Bell to discover words of greeting, Edison is credited as creating the word "Hello" as a telephone greeting in 1877.[46][47][48] Bell, however, preferred "Ahoy-hoy" as a greeting.[49] (Hello is a variant on the old word hallo.)
Edison was so fascinated by Morse Code that he taught it to his girlfriend Mina Miller and proposed marriage to her in code. He nicknamed his first two children "Dot" and "Dash" (from his first marriage to Mary Stilwell).
Edison's company was considerably late in the business of releasing music on phonographs. Reportedly, Edison considered his invention to be limited to a business dictation machine, and the concept of pre-recorded music never crossed his mind.[citation needed]
At the turn of the last century, Edison saw modern medicine at the crossroads. In 1902 he wrote of Medicine being "played out" which prompted his oft repeated quote: "The doctor of the future will give no medicine, but will instruct his patient in the care of the human frame, in diet and in the cause and prevention of disease." He continued in that vein: "There were never so many able, active minds at work on the problems of diseases as now, and all their discoveries are tending to the simple truth — that you can't improve on nature."[50]
Mrs. Thomas Alva Edison was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church.
He once said, "To invent, you need a good imagination and a pile of junk". [51]

See also
List of Edison patents
Thomas Edison in popular culture
History of the Light Bulb
List of people on stamps of Ireland
USS Edison (DD-439)
John I. Beggs
Animated Hero Classics - Animated DVD biography series of historical figures, including Thomas Edison
List of archetypal names

Biographies
"A Streak of Luck," by Robert Conot, Seaview Books, New York, 1979, ISBN 0-87223-521-1
"Edison: The man who made the future," by Ronald W. Clark, ISBN 0-354-04093-6
"Edison" by Matthew Josephson. McGraw Hill, New York, 1959, ISBN 0-07-033046-8
"Edison: Inventing the Century" by Neil Baldwin, University of Chicago Press, 2001, ISBN 0-226-03571-9
"Edison and the Electric Chair" Mark Essig, ISBN 0-7509-3680-0
"Working at Inventing: Thomas A. Edison and the Menlo Park Experience," edited by William S. Pretzer, Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village, Dearborn, Michigan, 1989, ISBN 0-933728-33-6 (cloth) ISBN 0-933728-34-4 (paper)
Ernst Angel: Edison. Sein Leben und Erfinden. Berlin: Ernst Angel Verlag, 1926.
Mark Essig: Edison & the Electric Chair: A Story of Light and Death. New York: Walker & Company, 2003. ISBN 0-8027-1406-4
Jill Jonnes, Empires of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and the Race to Electrify the World. New York: Random House, 2003. ISBN 0-375-50739-6
"The Wizard of Menlo Park: How Thomas Alva Edison Invented the Modern World", by Randall E. Stross. Crown (March 13, 2007), ISBN 1-400-04762-5

moosa1
09-11-2007, 03:32 PM
ان شاء الله تنال اعجابكم

بنت المطر
09-11-2007, 04:07 PM
مشكووووووووورة

أختتتتتتتي

(( MoOsA1 ))

بس أنا بغيييت عن الفصول الأربعة مع الصور والكلام

moosa1
09-11-2007, 04:26 PM
مشكور مب مشكورة انا اسمى موسى

مس_نووتي
09-11-2007, 10:52 PM
مشكور اخويه

و يزاك الله خيير

moosa1
10-11-2007, 12:23 AM
والعـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــفو

rak
11-11-2007, 02:59 PM
إذا عندكم موضوع للغة الإنجليزية للصف التاسع

rak
11-11-2007, 03:06 PM
[grade="00008b Ff6347 008000 4b0082"]عنكم موضوع عن اللغة الإنجليزية الصف التاسع دردو علي بسرعه

عيوني ذبحتهم
11-11-2007, 04:54 PM
بغيت دليل المعلم للأنكليزي
اليوم لو سمحتواااااااااااااااااااااااا
بليز اليوم

moosa1
12-11-2007, 12:11 AM
و الله ما عندى خارج نطاق قوتى

ladyflex
12-11-2007, 09:09 PM
هاااي

لوو سمحت اباا عن هالموضوع يعني بحث

martial arts


وثاانكس مقدماا

moosa1
12-11-2007, 09:38 PM
هذا هو البحث

moosa1
12-11-2007, 09:40 PM
Martial arts
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Learn more about citing Wikipedia •Jump to: navigation, search

A block print from the Wu Pei Chih ("Bubishi" in Japanese), an ancient $$$$ which describes techniques found in Chinese martial arts (mostly addressing White Crane Gong-fu).Martial arts are systems of codified practices and traditions of training for combat. They may be studied for various reasons including combat skills, fitness, self-defense, sport, self-cultivation/meditation, mental discipline, character development and building self-confidence, or any combination of the above.

There is a great diversity and abundance of martial arts but, broadly speaking, martial arts share a common goal: to defeat a person physically or to defend oneself from physical threat. Some martial arts are linked to spiritual or religious beliefs/philosophies such as Buddhism or Shinto while others have their own spiritual/non-spiritual code of honor.

While each style has unique facets that makes it different from other martial arts, a common characteristic is the systemization of fighting techniques. One common method of training, particularly in the Asian martial arts, is the form or kata; these are sets or routines of techniques that are performed alone, or sometimes with a partner. [1]

The word 'martial' derives from the name of Mars, the Roman god of war. The term 'Martial Arts' (arc Martialis) literally means arts of Mars. This term comes from 15th century Europeans who were referring to their own fighting arts that are today known as Historical Fencing. A practitioner of martial arts is referred to as a martial artist.

$$$$$$$s [hide]
1 Scope
2 History
2.1 In Asia
2.1.1 Early history
2.1.2 Modern history
2.2 In Europe
2.3 In the Americas
2.4 In Africa
2.5 Internationally
3 On the modern battlefield
4 Testing and competition
4.1 Light and medium-contact
4.2 Full-contact
5 Martial sport
6 Dance
7 See also
7.1 Styles
8 References
9 External links



[edit] Scope
Martial arts vary widely, and may focus on a specific area or combination of areas, but they can be broadly grouped into focusing on strikes, grappling, or weapons training. Below is a list of examples that make extensive use of one these areas; it is not an exhaustive list of all arts covering the area, nor are these necessarily the only areas covered by the art but are the focus or best known part as examples of the area:


Some arts have a very specific focus while others, such as Mixed martial arts, are more syncretic.Striking

Punching - Boxing (Western), Wing Chun
Kicking - Capoeira, Savate, Taekwondo
Other strikes (e.g. Elbows, knees, open-hand) - Muay Thai, Karate, Shaolin Kung Fu
Grappling

Throwing - Glima, Judo, Jujutsu, Sambo, Shuai jiao
Joint lock - Aikido, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, Hapkido
Pinning Techniques - Judo, Wrestling
Weaponry

Traditional Weaponry - Fencing, Gatka, Kendo, Silambam
Modern Weaponry - Eskrima, Jogo do Pau, Jukendo
Many martial arts, especially those from Asia, also teach side disciplines which pertain to medicinal practices. This is particularly prevalent in traditional Chinese martial arts which may teach bone-setting, qigong, acupuncture, acupressure (tui na), and other aspects of traditional Chinese medicine.[2]

The martial arts, though commonly associated with East Asian cultures, are by no means unique to this region. Throughout Europe there was an extensive system of combat martial arts, commonly referred to as Historical European martial arts, that existed until modern times and is now being reconstructed by numerous organizations. Native Americans have a tradition of open-handed martial arts that includes wrestling. Hawaiians have historically practiced arts featuring small and large joint manipulation. Savate is a French kicking style developed by sailors and street fighters. Capoeira's athletic movements were created in Brazil by slaves based on skills brought with them from Africa.


[edit] History
This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
This section has been tagged since July 2007.

The history of martial arts around the world is complex. Most groups of people have had to physically defend themselves at some time and have developed fighting techniques for that purpose. Development of many martial arts was related to military development, but many of those techniques have been rendered technologically obsolete over the centuries. In the modern day, most populations would be more likely to face adversaries wielding firearms than melee weapons during battle. Furthermore, the preservation of a martial art requires many years of teaching at the hands of a good instructor to pass on the art for a single generation. Given these circumstances, many martial arts from previous eras have not been passed down to following generations.[3]


[edit] In Asia

[edit] Early history

Ancient depiction of Shaolin monks practicing the art of self defense.The foundation of the Asian martial arts is likely a blend of early Chinese and Indian arts. Extensive trade occurred between these nations beginning around 600 B.C., with diplomats, merchants, and monks traveling the Silk Roads. During the Warring States period of Chinese history (480-221 B.C.) extensive development in martial philosophy and strategy emerged, as described by Sun Tzu in "The Art of War" (c. 350 B.C.)

An early legend in martial arts tells the tale of the Indian monk Bodhidarma (also called Daruma), believed to have lived around 550 A.D. He is credited with founding the meditative philosophy of Zen Buddhism and influencing the unarmed combat arts of the Shaolin temple in China. The martial virtues of discipline, humility, restraint and respect are attributed to this philosophy. [4]

The teaching of martial arts in Asia has historically followed the cultural traditions of teacher-disciple apprenticeship. Students are trained in a strictly hierarchical system by a master instructor: Saya (lit., teacher) in Burma, Shī fù (Pinyin) (lit., master-father) in Mandarin, Shih fu (師父) (Wade-Giles), Shī fù (Pinyin) (lit., master-father) in Mandarin; Guru (गुरू) in Sanskrit, Hindi, Telugu and Malay; Sensei (先生) in Japanese; Sa Bum Nim (사범님) in Korean; Kalari Gurukkal or kalari asaan in Malayalam; Asaan in Tamil; Achan in Thai ;and Guro in Tagalog. The instructor is expected to directly supervise their students' training, and the students are expected to memorize and recite as closely as possible the rules and basic training routines of the school.

In the warrior Kshatriya caste of South Asia, organised martial traditions were studied as a part of the Dharma (duty) of the caste. The senior teachers were called Gurus and taught martial arts at gurukuls to the shishyas (students).

Some method of certification can be involved, where one's skills would be tested for mastery before being allowed to study further; in some systems, there may not be any such certifications, only years of close personal practice and evaluation under a master, much like an apprenticeship, until the master deems one's skills satisfactory.[citation needed] This pedagogy, while still preserved and respected in many traditional styles, has weakened to varying degrees in others and is even actively rejected by some schools, especially in the West.

Throughout Asia martial arts were practiced as can be seen in the art, history and current traditions in Viet Nam, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar (Burma), and the Philippines. In many countries local arts like Te in Okinawa[5], Kenjutsu and Ju-Jutsu in Japan[6], and Taekyon and Soobak in Korea[7] mixed with other martial arts and evolved to produce some of the more well-known martial arts in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries like Karate, Aikido, and Taekwondo.


[edit] Modern history

Bruce Lee is widely regarded as one of the most influential martial artists of the 20th century.[8]The Western interest in East Asian Martial arts dates back to the late 19th Century AD, due to the increase in trade between America with China and Japan. Relatively few Westerners actually practiced the arts, considering it to be mere performance.

Edward William Barton-Wright, a railway engineer who had studied Jujutsu while working in Japan between 1894–97, was the first man known to have taught Asian martial arts in Europe. He also founded an eclectic martial arts style named Bartitsu which combined jujutsu, judo, boxing, savate and stick fighting.

During the late 19th century and early 20th century, catch wrestling contests became immensely popular in Europe. However martial arts remained largely unknown in the West even as late as the 1950s; for example, in the 1959 popular fiction Goldfinger, Karate was described to readers in near-mythical terms and it was credible for British unarmed combat experts to be represented as completely unaware of martial arts of this kind. The novel describes the protagonist James Bond, an expert in unarmed combat, as utterly ignorant of Karate and its demonstrations, and describes the Korean 'Oddjob' in these terms:

Goldfinger said, "Have you ever heard of Karate? No? Well that man is one of the three in the world who have achieved the Black Belt in Karate. Karate is a branch of judo, but it is to judo what a Spandau is to a catapult...". [9]

Such a de$$$$$$ion in a popular novel assumed and relied upon karate being almost unknown in the West; and it linked karate with judo, whereas in reality karate is a distinct art almost unrelated to judo.

As Western influence grew in East Asia a greater number of military personnel spent time in China, Japan, and Korea. Exposure to martial arts during the Korean war was also significant. Gradually some soldiers saw the value of Eastern martial arts and began training in them.

With large numbers of American servicemen stationed in Japan after World War II, the adoption of techniques and the gradual transmission of entire systems of martial arts to the West started. It was in the 1950s, however, when this exportation of systems really began to gain momentum. Large groups of U.S. military personnel were taught Korean arts (Taekwondo) during the Korean conflict. In the early 1970s, martial arts movies, in particular those of martial artist and actor Bruce Lee, furthered the popularity of martial arts.

This exportation of the martial arts led to such styles as sport karate, which became a major international sport, with professional fighters, big prizes, television coverage, and sponsorship deals. This also lead to the creation of modern martial arts such as Brazilian Jiu-jitsu. Brazilian Jiu-jitsu is a derivative of Kodokan Judo, extended and influenced by the no holds barred combat traditions of Brazil; it has been highly effective in mixed martial arts competitions around the world.

The later 1970s and 1980s witnessed an increased media interest in the martial arts, thanks in part to Asian and Hollywood martial arts movies and very popular television shows like "Kung Fu", "Martial Law" and "The Green Hornet" that incorporated martial arts moments or themes. Jackie Chan and Jet Li are prominent movie figures who have been responsible for promoting Chinese martial arts in recent years.


[edit] In Europe

Boxing was practiced in the ancient MediterraneanIn Europe, the martial arts declined with the rise of the firearms. As a consequence, martial arts with historical roots in Europe do not exist today to the same extent as in Asia.[citation needed]. Swordplay developed into fencing. Boxing as well as forms of wrestling have endured. European martial arts have mostly adapted to changing technology so that while some traditional arts still exist, military personnel are trained in skills like flying helicopters and marksmanship. These skills do not fall under the common use of the term, but may still be considered "martial arts".

This is not to say Europe was not rich in historical martial arts traditions. Martial arts existed in classical European civilization, most notably in Greece where sports were integral to the way of life. Boxing (pygme, pyx), Wrestling (pale) and Pankration (from pan, meaning "all", and kratos, meaning "power" or "strength") were represented in the Ancient Olympic Games. The Romans produced Gladiatorial combat as a public spectacle.

Khridoli (Georgian: ხრიდოლი) is an ancient Georgian martial art, which includes fighting with bare hands and different types of weapons.

Glima is an unarmed Scandinavian martial art with, as some sources indicate, roots in the Viking age. [10] The tradition of glima has been kept alive as Iceland's national sport.

Some traditional martial arts have been preserved in one form or another. For example, boxing, wrestling, archery, and fencing were preserved by being made into sports; of course this has changed the emphases of these arts significantly. Notably, savate still has a very strong following in modern-day France. Other martial arts, such as sabre duelling as mensur have been outlawed but practised secretly.

A number of historical fencing forms and manuals have survived, and many groups are working to reconstruct older European martial arts. The process of reconstruction combines intensive study of detailed combat treatises produced from 1400–1900 A.D. and $$$$$$$$$ training or "pressure testing" of various techniques and tactics. This includes such styles as sword and shield, two-handed swordfighting, halberd fighting, jousting and other types of melee weapons combat. This reconstruction effort and modern outgrowth of the historical methods is generally referred to as Western martial arts. Many Medieval martial arts manuals have survived, the most famous being Johannes Lichtenauer's Fechtbuch (Sword Tome) of the 14th century. Today the Lichtenauer's tome forms the basis of German school of swordsmanship.

Another aspect of the reconstruction effort involves more historically recent martial arts and combat sports, such as those practiced during the 1800 s and 1900 s. A partial list would include bare-knuckle boxing, Bartitsu, quarterstaff, fencing according to late 1800 s rules, etc. Some weapon systems have also survived as folk sports and as self-defense methods. These include stick-fighting systems such as Jogo do Pau of Portugal and the Juego del Palo style(s) of the Canary Islands.

Other martial arts evolved into sports that no longer recognized as combative. One example is the pommel horse event in men's gymnastics, an exercise which itself is derived from the sport of Equestrian vaulting. Cavalryriders needed to be able to change positions on their horses quickly, rescue fallen allies, fight effectively on horseback and dismount at a gallop. Training these skills on a stationery barrel evolved into sport of gymnastics' pommel horse exercise. More ancient origins exist for the shot put and the javelin throw, $$$$ weapons utilized extensively by the Romans.


[edit] In the Americas
The native peoples of North America and South America had their own martial training which began in childhood. Many Native American men considered themselves warriors and trained to use the bows, knives, blowguns, spears, and war clubs. War-clubs were the preferred martial weapon because Native American warriors could raise their social status by killing enemies in single combat face to face.[citation needed] Warriors honed their archery and war club skills through lifelong training. The European colonists (and later, Asian immigrants) brought over their own martial arts such as boxing, fencing and wrestling.

Capoeira, with roots in Africa, is a martial art originating in Brazil that involves a high degree of flexibility and endurance. It consists of kicks, elbow strikes, head butts, and sweeps. Brazilian Jiu Jitsu is an adaptation of pre-World War II Judo and jujutsu. Created by Carlos Gracie and his brother Hélio, it was restructured into a sport with a large focus on groundwork. This system has become a popular martial art and proved to be effective in mixed martial arts competitions such as the UFC and PRIDE.

As of 2003, over 1.5 million US citizens practice martial arts.[11]


[edit] In Africa
African knives may be classified by shape—typically into the 'f' group and the 'circular' group—and have often been incorrectly described as throwing knives.[12]There are also wrestling and grappling techniques found in West Africa.


[edit] Internationally
Every village and tribe around the world had a few experienced fighters who passed on their knowledge[citation needed]; however, it is difficult to pass on a fighting system, so almost all of these have been lost as their $$$$$$$$$ relevance has declined. A few have nonetheless survived for one reason or another, examples of this are Capoeira and some related arts in Cuba, Haiti and Trinidad and Tobago, which were preserved partly through their relationship with Candomblé, Santería, Vodun, and other syncretic religions.[citation needed] Of these, only Capoeira has risen to worldwide prominence.

Archery, Boxing, Fencing, Javelin, Judo, Wrestling and Tae Kwon Do are the martial arts that are featured as events in the modern Summer Olympic Games.

Martial arts also developed among military and police forces to be used as:

arrest and self-defense methods. Examples include; Krav Maga: a self-defense system developed by the Special armed forces of Israel, San Shou: developed for Chinese armed forces, Kombato: developed for the Brazilian armed forces, Rough and Tumble (RAT): originally developed for the South African special forces (Reconnaissance Commandos) (now taught in a civilian capacity).
tactical arts for use in close quarter combat warfare, i.e. Military Martial arts e.g. UAC (British), LINE (USA)
Other combative systems having their origins in the modern military include Soviet Bojewoje (Combat) Sambo.


[edit] On the modern battlefield

U.S. Army Combatives instructor Matt Larsen demonstrates a chokeholdSome traditional martial concepts have seen new use within modern military training. Perhaps the most recent example of this is point shooting which relies on muscle memory to more effectively utilize a firearm in a variety of awkward situations, much the way an iaidoka would master movements with their sword.

During the World War II era William E. Fairbairn, a Shanghai policeman and a leading Western expert on Asian fighting techniques, was recruited during World War II by the Special Operations Executive (SOE) to teach Jujutsu to UK, U.S. and Canadian Special Forces. The book Kill or Get Killed, written by Colonel Rex Applegate, became a classic military treatise on hand-to-hand combat. This fighting method was called Defendu.

Traditional hand-to-hand, knife, and spear techniques continue to see use in the composite systems developed for today's wars. Examples of this include the US Army's Combatives system developed by Matt Larsen, the Israeli army trains kapap and Krav Maga, the US Marine Corps's Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP), and Chinese San Shou.

Unarmed dagger defenses identical to that found in the fechtbuch of Fiore dei Liberi and the Codex Wallerstein were integrated into the U.S. Army's training manuals in 1942[13] and continue to influence today's systems along with other traditional systems such as Kali and Escrima.

The bayonet, too, tracing its origins to the spear, may seem a relic of history to many, but the weapon has seen use by the British Army as recently as the Iraq War.[14]


[edit] Testing and competition
Testing or evaluation is important to martial art practitioners of many disciplines who wish to determine their progression or own level of skill in specific con$$$$s. Students within individual martial art systems often undergo periodic testing and grading by their own teacher in order to advance to a higher level of recognized achievement, such as a different belt color or title. The type of testing used varies from system to system but may include forms or sparring.

Various forms and sparring are commonly used in martial art exhibitions and tournaments. Some competitions pit practitioners of different disciplines against each other using a common set of rules, these are referred to as mixed martial arts competitions. Rules for sparring vary between art and organization but can generally be divided into light-contact, medium-contact, and full-contact variants, reflecting the amount of force that should be used on an opponent.


[edit] Light and medium-contact
These types of sparring restrict the amount of force that may be used to hit an opponent, in the case of light sparring this is usual to 'touch' contact, e.g. a punch should be 'pulled' as soon as or before contact is made, in medium-contact the punch would not be 'pulled' but not hit with full force. As the amount of force used is restricted, the aim of these types of sparing is not to knock out an opponent; a point system is used in competitions.

A referee acts to monitor for fouls and to control the match, while judges mark down scores similar to boxing. Particular targets may be prohibited (such as the face or groin), certain techniques may be forbidden, and fighters may be required to wear protective equipment on their head, hands, chest, groin, shins or feet. In some forms Competitors score points based on landing of a single technique as judged by the referee, whereupon they will briefly stop the match, award a point, then restart it. Alternatively sparing may continue with the point noted by the judges Some critics of point-sparring feel that this method of training teaches habits that result in lower combat effectiveness than in continuous sparring. These lighter contact styles of sparring may also be used exclusively, as training for full contact, for children, or otherwise where heavy contact would be inappropriate.


[edit] Full-contact
"Full-contact" sparring or fighting is considered by many to be requisite in learning realistic unarmed combat. The phrase refers to several aspects which differentiate it from light and medium-contact sparring. One example is the reduced or eliminated use of protective gear. For instance, Kyokushin karate is a style of karate that requires advanced practitioners to engage in bare-knuckled, full-contact sparring while wearing only a karate gi and groin protector. Full contact may also refer to a wider variety of permitted attacks and contact zones on the body, excluding a limited number of forbidden techniques such as biting, finger breaking, groin striking or attacking the eyes. The phrase could also indicate the employment of full-force attacks in order to disable the opponent, either by knockout or direct submission of defeat. If a point system is utilized, (in some competitions, such as the UFC 1, there is none) there is often a lower emphasis on scoring points to win by judges' decision.

Due to these factors, full-contact matches tend to be more aggressive in character. Nearly all MMA leagues such as UFC, PRIDE, Pancrase, Shooto use full-contact rules, as do professional boxing organizations. Rulesets mandate the use of protective gloves and forbid certain techniques or actions during a match, such as punching the back of the head. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and Judo matches do not allow striking, but are full-contact in the sense that full force is applied during grappling and submissions.

Some practitioners believe that winning a sport match by rules is not an important matter in hand-to-hand combat. Many of these practitioners may prefer not to participate in most types of rule-based martial art competition (even one such as modern vale tudo), electing instead to study fighting techniques with little or no regard to competitive rules or, perhaps, ethical concerns and the law (the techniques practiced may include attacking perceived vulnerable spots such as the groin or the eyes). Nonetheless, others maintain that, given proper precautions such as a referee and a ring doctor, full-contact matches with basic rules could serve as a useful gauge of one's overall fighting ability, encompassing broad categories including striking, grappling and finishing hold.


[edit] Martial sport

Several traditional martial arts, such as Judo, are Olympic sports.Judo and Tae Kwon Do as well as western archery, boxing, javelin, wrestling and fencing are currently events in the Summer Olympic Games. Chinese wushu recently failed in its bid to be included, but is still actively performed in tournaments across the world. Practitioners in some arts such as kickboxing and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu often train for sport matches, whereas those in other arts such as Aikido and Wing Chun generally spurn such competitions. Some schools believe that competition breeds better and more efficient practitioners, and gives a sense of good sportsmanship. Others believe that the rules under which competition takes place have diminished the combat effectiveness of martial arts or encourage a kind of practice which focuses on winning trophies rather than the more traditional focus such as cultivating a particular moral character.

As part of the response to sport martial arts, new forms of competition are being held such as the Ultimate Fighting Championship in the U.S. or Pancrase, and the PRIDE in Japan which are also known as mixed martial arts (or MMA) events. The original UFC was fought under very few rules allowing all martial arts styles to enter and not be limited by the rule set.

Some martial artists also compete in non-sparring competitions such as breaking or choreographed techniques poomse, kata or aka. Modern variations of the martial arts include dance-influenced competitions such as tricking.

Some martial traditions have been influenced by governments to become more sport-like for political purposes. The central impetus for the attempt by the People's Republic of China in transforming Chinese martial arts into the committee-regulated sport of Wushu was suppressing what they saw as the potentially subversive aspects of martial training, especially under the traditional system of family lineages.[15]


[edit] Dance
As mentioned above, some martial arts in various cultures can be performed in dance-like settings for various reasons, such as for evoking ferocity in preparation for battle or showing off skill in a more stylized manner. Many such martial arts incorporate music, especially strong percussive rhythms.

Examples of such war dances include:


Capoeira is a martial art traditionally performed with a dance-like flavor and to live musical accompaniment, as seen depicted here.Buza - From Russia.
Panther Dance - Burmese Bando with swords (dha)
Gymnopaidiai - ancient Sparta
European Sword dance or Weapon dance of various kinds
Haka - New Zealand
Sabre Dance - depicted in Khachaturian's ballet Gayane
Maasai moran (warrior age-set) dances
Aduk-Aduk - Brunei
Ayyalah - Qatar
Khattak Dance - Afghanistan
Brazil's Capoeira, as well as some similar Afro-Caribbean arts
Dannsa Biodag - Scotland and Scottish sword dances
Hula & Lua - from the traditions of indigenous Hawaiian

moosa1
12-11-2007, 09:41 PM
و السموحة

العهد
16-11-2007, 08:36 PM
الرجاء المساعدة بحث بالانجليزي عن علاقة شباب في سن التين اجرز بالوالدين ضروري لو اليوم او ها الاسبوع

elshamil
17-11-2007, 09:26 PM
لو سمحتو ابي بحث عن Transportation (( المواصلات )) ضروووووووووووووري
باسرع وقت ممكن خلال هذا الاسبوع

والسموحة

الطالبه المجتهدة
08-01-2008, 02:03 PM
:p:blush-anim-cl:شكر اكتيرررررررررررررر والله كنت محتاجتة ما بعرف كيف اشكر ووفقك الله لما فيه الخير بس ممكن طلب اصغير بدي اوراق عمل للغة الاجليزية للصف الثامن وشكرا جزيلا

Pink123
14-01-2008, 04:12 PM
nice but if there are some colours it will be great with fonts 2


thankx for it

it is soo nice

نوراا
18-01-2008, 08:01 PM
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
بليز معلومات او أي شي عن الوحدة الاخيرة بليز بليز اي شي مسابقات منشورات .....خ
بليزززززززززززززززززززز

قلبي الطيب
19-01-2008, 11:29 AM
ابا بحث عن التسامح

و الحرب بين الناس

missen
18-02-2008, 07:00 PM
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
ثااانكس...
انا ابا اجوبه صفحه 42ضروووووووري في الوورك بوك

العاشقة الفرعونية
19-02-2008, 12:33 AM
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته اريد بحث عنexpectancy Life For The Ancient Egyptians People From 1900 To Now

نسيم المودة
19-02-2008, 05:46 PM
لو سمحت أخووووووووويييييييي بغيت بس بحث عن weather



:tears: :tears:
:

سريع آأإلاشتعال
02-03-2008, 05:57 PM
لو سمحت اخوي اريد بحث عن الحوادث وياريت اليوم ويكون قصير

نــــــ وو فه
03-03-2008, 12:59 PM
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
توني جديدة ..... اريد منكم تطلعووووووولي ا
أسئلة الكتاب ( الورك بوك ) ........ ؟؟؟؟؟
ومشكووووووووووووووووووووووووووورين:)

نــــــ وو فه
03-03-2008, 01:00 PM
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
توني جديدة ..... اريد منكم تطلعووووووولي ا
أسئلة الكتاب ( الورك بوك ) ........ ؟؟؟؟؟
ومشكووووووووووووووووووووووووووورين:)

نــــــ وو فه
03-03-2008, 01:06 PM
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
توني جديدة ممكن تطلعووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووووولي حل أسئلة
( ورك بوك) .....................
مشكوووورين

عدنان شاهين
05-03-2008, 08:28 PM
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
بغيت مساعدة منكم موضوع عن الفجيرة وحكامة و صور عنة

دلوووووعة
05-03-2008, 09:28 PM
ابي بحث عن الحوادث وجي ^^

لاهوب
07-03-2008, 12:01 AM
السلام عليكم بغيت تقرير عن the summer holiday
الاجازه الصيفيه يشمل المقدمه والموضوع والخاتمه والمراجع اذا ممكن بسرعه الله يخليكم

سرايا
07-03-2008, 07:09 PM
لو سمحت اخوي ابقي موضوع انجليزي عن manegment style الديموقراطي والاستبدادي

مع مقدمة وخاتمة لو سمحت ابقيه ضاروري هذا الاسبوع

العذاب الهادئ
12-03-2008, 04:46 PM
أريد لوسمحت عن the life expactancy in the uae
لوسمحت اليوم
بليييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييي يييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييييي يييييييييييييييييييييييييز

1234
12-03-2008, 08:55 PM
أبغي بحث في الأنجليري عن الحياة المعوقة في دولة الإمارات عام 1900 إلى 2000

فراشة الحياة2007
12-03-2008, 09:55 PM
الله يخليكم أبا ألعاب عن الgramar و ال vcab الوحدة السادسة
خمس ألعاب

بنتـ العلمـ
15-03-2008, 12:09 PM
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
شكراً
بس بغيد بحث عن الحوادث في دولة الامارات
مع الصور

كشيخهـ دبي
16-03-2008, 10:03 PM
بليييز ضرووري


ابغي بحث عن المكسيك

SCOR7PION
18-03-2008, 08:11 PM
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
أخوي بغيت بحث عن رسول (صلى الله عليه وسلم)
بالانجليزي

Amani789
24-03-2008, 05:32 PM
ابا موضوع عن المولد النبوي
:00015::00015:

غــــ البدو ــلا
28-03-2008, 11:51 AM
لو سمحتو بغيت ؟؟ بحث عن التغذية

zoom 1
31-03-2008, 04:08 PM
لو سمحت ابي موضع عن how sports keep us fit and healthy
]

محمد1994
26-04-2008, 01:52 PM
إسمعو الي يريد بحث عن التغدية تفضلوا

Nutrition for older adults

There is evidence that good nutrition is a key factor in determining the quality of life of older people. Despite such evidence, malnutrition in older people is not only common, but frequently overlooked.

Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the population worldwide. It is estimated that in 2025, there will be a total of about 1.2 billion people over the age of 60. 1 Health experts predict a serious increase in the prevalence of malnutrition among older people.

The prevalence
The prevalence of malnutrition increases with frailty and physical dependence. 2 Institutionalised elderly are at highest risk of malnutrition. In the United Kingdom (UK), an estimated 500,000 elderly are malnourished, or at severe risk of malnutrition. 3 In the United States, about 16% of elderly persons living in the community are undernourished and these figures rise up to 59% in long-term care institutions and 65% in acute care hospitals. 4 In Sweden, the nutritional status of 80 elderly people living in service flat complexes was investigated. Among the frail and chronically ill, 30% were malnourished and 59% were at risk. The malnourished residents had worse cognitive conditions and well-being, lower functional ability and a greater need for daily assistance. 5

What is malnutrition?
Malnutrition 6 includes under-nutrition, in which nutrients are undersupplied, and over-nutrition, in which nutrients are oversupplied. Over-nutrition can result from overeating and insufficient exercise (e.g. obesity), an excess intake of vitamins and minerals and an over pre$$$$$$ion of therapeutic diets, including parenteral nutrition. Under-nutrition occurs when there is a deficiency of one or more nutrients. Protein-energy under nutrition is a significant cause of weight loss among older people.

Geriatric Failure to Thrive
In older people, failure to thrive describes a state of decline in functional status disproportional to disease burden. According to the Institute of Medicine (1991), it is manifested by a weight loss greater than 5 percent of baseline. Although the prevalence of failure to thrive increases with age, it is not considered a normal consequence of aging. The causes are multiple, but mainly include protein-energy under-nutrition, loss of muscle mass, problems with balance and endurance, declining cognition and depression. 7

Why is malnutrition common among the elderly?
With advancing age, $$$$bolic rates slow down and can decline as much as 30%. This is mainly due to a decrease in lean body tissue (muscle) and a more sedentary lifestyle. Malnutrition occurs when these changes are coupled with other age-related complications as in digestive difficulties, oral and dental problems, functional disability, dementia, acute or chronic diseases and medication-related problems.

While there are many physical and clinical factors that lead to malnutrition, many elderly experience social, family and economic changes. In the UK, almost two million pensioners live in poverty and are facing ill health because of an inadequate diet. 8 Social isolation, loneliness, depression, minority status, caregiver burnout, lack of $$$$$ng and shopping skills and economic concerns can place older people at moderate to high nutritional risk.

Energy, nutrient and protein requirements
As people age, energy requirements generally decrease. To maintain a good appetite, older people should keep active (e.g. walking, climbing stairs or gardening) and consume a wide variety of nutrient-rich foods every day.

Protein requirements are similar to those for younger adults. However, when energy intakes are inadequate, older adults need high quality protein to maintain muscle mass. This is particularly important during illness. Many older adults need to modify their diets to help control conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, heart and renal disease.

Aging affects the absorption, utilisation and excretion of nutrients. Older people often have specialised requirements for a variety of nutrients. Folic acid, vitamins B-6 and B-12 are important to prevent a decline in cognitive function and to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. Many older people cannot efficiently utilise vitamin B-12 found in animal foods. For some, vitamin B-12 fortified foods or supplements may be recommended.

Older people need higher levels of calcium and vitamin D to reduce the risk of osteoporosis, fractures and disability. It is recommended that adults over 50 consume 1,200 milligrams of calcium and 400 to 600 International Units of vitamin D each day. 9 Nonfat milk provides an excellent source of calcium and vitamin D. Nonfat dairy products offer the best source of calcium. The best dietary food sources of vitamin D are oily fish, margarines and fortified cereals.

Older adults have poorer ability to synthesize vitamin D in the skin. In addition, people who are housebound or live in institutions may not be receiving sufficient amounts of vitamin D. For these people, a supplement may be advised.

Vitamin E in the diet boosts the immune system and may reduce the risk of cataracts, heart disease and Alzheimer’s. 10 Foods rich in vitamin E include almonds, vegetable oils, seeds, wheat germ, spinach and other dark, green leafy vegetables. Fruits and vegetables provide nutrients and antioxidants that keep the immune system healthy and reduce the risk for cancer and other disease. Lycopene, 11 a pigment that gives vegetables and fruits their red colour, has strong antioxidant capabilities.

Older people have a decreased sense of thirst and are more likely to become dehydrated. Some medications may also increase the need for water. The Food Guide Pyramid for older adults emphasises the importance of fluid intake and the prevention of dehydration. It can help people over 50 choose a variety of nutrient-rich foods every day.

Food Guide Pyramid for Older Adults



Assessing nutritional risk
Malnourished older people experience more falls, are more prone to infections and take longer to recover from illness or surgery. Malnutrition is $$$$ a cause and consequence of disease. Experts have predicted that £226 million could be saved each year in UK hospitals if malnourished patients were properly identified and treated. 12

To accurately recognise and treat malnutrition among older adults, comprehensive assessment is often necessary. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) 13 is a simple and quick method of identifying malnutrition among older people. A caregiver can complete the questions if an older person is unable to answer them. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) 14 is another simple screening tool that identifies adults of all ages who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Health care workers in a variety of settings can use this tool.

Future directions for health care professionals
The benefits of good nutrition are ageless. Maintaining the desire to eat, enjoying food and making mealtime a social event are just as important as ensuring a balanced and nutritious diet. No doubt, health care professionals need to be given the means to assess, monitor and treat malnutrition among older adults. However, quality nutrition is fundamental to quality of life. Keeping this in mind, more liberalised nutrition interventions may be warranted.

To encourage older people to maintain healthy eating habits, education and social interaction programmes are essential. Combined diet and exercise programmes can promote social contacts and improve body and mind. Low impact exercises, aqua gym, Yoga, T’ai Chi and fitness classes for chronic conditions can optimise independence and reduce disability.

Recognising failure to thrive is a key point in nutrition care among the elderly. However, lifestyle and social change issues are equally important. Caregiver burnout, housing conditions and hygiene, availability of free or low cost meal services, designated meal centres, delivered meals for people who are housebound and a variety of networks that help with food shopping and meal preparations are all part nutrition care.

Nutrition services should be well coordinated across acute, home, community and long-term care sites. Older adults should be included in the planning, implementation and evaluation of new policies and programmes to ensure their needs are met.

___________________________________

اميرة الفراشات
29-04-2008, 01:02 PM
مشكوررر بحث مميز

ولد العفاسي
30-04-2008, 06:09 PM
بحث عن الوحدة 8

temo
16-05-2008, 06:28 PM
عايزة بحث عن national dish

ρ.z3ααβι
05-09-2008, 02:23 PM
السلام عليكم ^ــــــــ^



ابغي بحث عن الوحده الأولى في الانجليزي الصف الثامن.. الفصل الأول ..


عنوان البحث التعليم في الإمارات ^ـــ^


ممكن اتيبلولي اياه ^ــ^


و السموحهـ

الميث
07-09-2008, 05:11 PM
ابا بحث عن Education

أم عهد
08-09-2008, 05:37 PM
يزاج الله خير
و لو تقدرين .....أبي بحث صغير عن التعليم في الامارات
ضرووووووووووووووووووري
وشكـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــرا

MiSs_GaLaXy
08-09-2008, 06:06 PM
لو سمحتوا اللي يقدر يساعدني ويحط لي بحث عن التكنولوجيا ..

بحث صغير ما يتعدى الثلاث صفحات ..
لو تقدروون تساعدوني حتى لو بصفحة وحده لاني انا روحي برد بكتبه وبعيده يعني بجمع معلومات مني ومناك ..

بلييييز اللي يقدر لا يقصر ..

والسموحه

moomy
09-09-2008, 10:11 PM
أبي بحث عن the different types of horses used in the U.A.E و بلييييييييييييييز ابي إياه اليوم بلييييييييييييييييييييييييييز

moomy
09-09-2008, 10:12 PM
بس ما يكون طويل

moomy
09-09-2008, 10:25 PM
ضروووووووووووووووووووووري المس تباه بكرة بلييييييييييييييييز

Miss Destroy
14-09-2008, 02:24 PM
انا اريد بحث عن Education in UAE لو سمحتي
بس اريده في اسرع وقت ممكن ؟؟؟

MiSs_BaNaNoH
16-09-2008, 04:06 PM
مرحبا الساع انا ابا بحث عن صاحب السمو محمد بن زايد ال نهيان بس بالانجليزي طبعا


مشكور ما تقصر

بوحمدان
18-09-2008, 12:32 AM
بغيت تقرير عنdifficulties in learning english

عواشي القمر
24-09-2008, 03:59 AM
قدمو اليومممممممممممممممممممممممممممممممممم

راعي الذود
06-10-2008, 05:41 PM
لوسمحت أخوي أبا تقرير في صفحة وحدة عن (كيف أصبح دكتور ناجح في المستقبل )
ضرووووووووووووري ... خله بسيط وايد لاني ميح في eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee

قصايد المنصوري
07-10-2008, 10:26 PM
لو سمحتواا ابا تقرير عن دخول سن 18 في الامارات ..بالنجلش ..

لو سمحتوااااااااااااااااااااااا بلييييييييييييييييييييييز ضروووووووووووووووووووري ..

بلييييييييييييييز

الملك الموقر
07-10-2008, 10:57 PM
لو سمحت عن نظام التعليم

ابن السراة
10-10-2008, 12:09 PM
جزاكم اللة خيرالجزاء

ابن السراة
10-10-2008, 12:15 PM
ممكن طلب ابغييت دروس بوربوينت ومشكـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــورين لل einglish

وحداوية وكلي وافتخر
14-10-2008, 05:24 PM
مشكور
بس ورقة عمل الوحدة الثاني

عادي اي يوم تب ويزاك الله خير

3_6
14-10-2008, 06:14 PM
الصـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــراحه




انــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــا
وحــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــده





راســـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ ــــــي





قـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ ــــــام





يعورنـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ ـــــــــي





اللحين اي واحــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــد





عـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ ــــــــــن





الفصــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ ــــــول





الاربعــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ ــــــه





والسموحه





معاك أختك





3_6




^_*

alaa s
14-10-2008, 06:35 PM
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
لو سمحتوووووو بلييييييييييز بدي بحث عن Eid al-Fitr

علي ابراهيم سالم
15-10-2008, 10:28 PM
بحث الوحدة الثانية

sbna
16-10-2008, 02:50 AM
ابي برجراف
انا ما ابي عن التعليم في الامارات انا ابي اتعليم الغه الانجليزيه في الامارات

نساي
23-03-2009, 05:55 PM
ابي بحث عن car accident
لو تقدر اليوم و مشكور

baby444
25-03-2009, 10:22 PM
أبا بحث عن activate and geisure time ضروري وياريت اليوم